Parallel Session 9: Regional/Country Experiences
PULSE MICROIRRIGATION TECHNOLOGY IN RUSSIA
A V KOLGANOV1 and V F NOSENKO2
1Chairman of the Russian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage, ICID, Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Food of the Russian Federation
2All-Russian Research Institute of Irrigation Systems and Rural Water Supply RADUGA, Russia
Brief information on the types of systems and technologies of microirrigation used in Russia is presented in the Introduction along with the analysis of the available experience in microirrigation practices. The main part of the paper offers the data on the peculiarities of systems and design modules of pulse irrigation (sprinkler microirrigation, localized trickle irrigation, mist irrigation) as well as the data on the specific features of water and fertilizer application technology synchronous with plant requirements. Special emphasis is given to the agrobiological efficiency of systems and technologies of pulse microirrigation. Empirical and field test results of studying the impact of pulse microirrigation and localized irrigation technologies on yields of different crops (tea, orchards, beetroots, grass, and grain crops) in some regions of Russia are presented in the paper.
A DECADE OF MICRO IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT IN MAHARASHTRA STATE OF INDIA
S A KULKARNI
International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage
48 Nyaya Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110001, India – E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Micro Irrigation was commercially launched in India in the year 1986. The adaptation was low until 1990, the area has been increasing steadily since then. Presently, over 0.26 Mha are micro irrigated in the country. Maharashtra is the leading state in adoption of micro irrigation, contributing almost half of the country's micro-irrigated area. The paper briefly describes the drives for wide adoption of micro irrigation in Maharashtra State. The main driving factors being, accelerated horticultural development, dwindling groundwater resources, full fledged growth of indigenous micro irrigation industry, substantial financial support from the Government, progressive farming community and research support from various academic institutions. In Maharashtra, out of the total irrigated area of 2.52 Mha, 62% are irrigated from over a million privately owned dug wells. Micro irrigation is adopted for thirty types of fruit trees, vegetables, flowers, and other crops like sugarcane, cotton, and agro-forestry. Micro irrigation systems range from a small unit using low cost micro tube emitters, to large system using media filters fertilizer injector and automatic controls. The paper briefly describes the various experiences, in terms of achievements and constraints, in adoption of micro irrigation technology in Maharashtra State during the last one decade. Some suggestions to achieve sustained growth of micro irrigation in the State in particular, and in India in general are enlisted. It is concluded that there is a great potential for expanding micro irrigated area in Maharashtra as well as in those States of India where area under horticulture is increasing and groundwater is depleting.
IMPROVED WATER MANAGEMENT FOR SUGARCANE PRODUCTION
E J SCHMIDT
SA Sugar Association, Private Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300 South Africa
Changes to water legislation in South Africa have resulted in a focus on improving irrigation water management. The sugar industry covers an area of approximately 420 000 hectares of which around 20% is irrigated. Irrigation takes place largely in the northern areas of KwaZulu-Natal and in Mpumalanga, where there is strong competition for limited water resources. Approximately 90% of irrigation takes place using overhead sprinkler systems, which operate on a fixed cycle of between 8 and 28 days. There is however a move to more efficient centre pivot systems (currently 6% of total area) and drip irrigation systems (4% of total area), particularly in areas of water scarcity.
This paper investigates the role of irrigation in the South African Sugar Industry and describes some of the reasons for, and challenges in, the adoption of drip irrigation systems. Methods for improving water management in sugarcane production are described and recent technological developments at the SA Sugar Association's Experiment Station are discussed. These developments include the use of computer models for irrigation scheduling, and economic evaluation of irrigation strategies as well as the analysis of hydrological and yield responses of sugarcane under dryland and irrigated conditions.
THE NEED TO ADAPT DRIP SYSTEMS TO SMALLHOLDERS CONDITIONS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
A P SAVVA
Water Resources Management Officer, FAO Sub-regional Office for Eastern and Southern Africa, P O Box 3730, Harare, Zimbabwe - E-mail: email@example.com
Very often reservations are expressed on the wisdom of introducing localized irrigation systems to smallholders in Sub-Saharan Africa. The same reservations were expressed with the introduction of sprinkler systems in the middle 1980s. However by adapting the sprinkler systems to the conditions of the smallholders in Southern Africa, farmers were able to benefit from the use of an efficient irrigation technology. What are the lessons learned from this experience in Zimbabwe? How can they be used with the introduction of localized irrigation?
This paper will attempt to analyze the conditions prevailing in smallhoder farming as related to the introduction of drip irrigation at scheme level. Issues related to the technology, its suitability and cost, land tenure, equitable water allocation, cropping programmes, cost recovery, scheme organizational aspects and human resources development will feature prominently in this discussion.
The private sector has already introduced drip systems to operate with low head (3-5m) using erased drums to provide the required head. Other innovations include the erased bucket combined with 1-2 short drip lines. Both approaches require the pumping of the water or it's manual transport (by bucket) from the source to the container. This paper will also report on the first attempt made in Zimbabwe, on the direct coupling of the treadle pump with drip tapes.
MICRO IRRIGATION: A WORLD OVERVIEW
F B REINDERS
ARC-Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Private Bag X519, Silverton, Pretoria, 0127 South Africa
Micro-irrigation as a technology has matured into a reliable water and fertigation management system for crop production over the past four decades and the usage continues to increase in the world. The primary reason for the usage of micro-irrigation includes increased beneficial use of available water; enhanced plant growth, quality and yield; improved fertiliser applications; decreased energy requirements and many more.
According to a preliminary survey into the extent of usage of micro-irrigation techniques throughout the world, a total of 3,201,300 ha are being irrigated which represents only 1% of the total irrigated area in the world. However, a growth over the past 19 years of more than 675% has been achieved.