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K-State Research and Extension News

Weather Wonders

Kansas State climatologist Mary Knapp offers this weekly series of short programs on weather phenomena and recent meteorological events in Kansas.  Each segment is approximately 1-minute in length.

Send comments, questions or requests for copies of past programs to ksrenews@ksu.edu.


Program Date

Segment Title and Description

Listen and Download


AN OCTOBER ICE STORMIt’s uncommon to have an ice storm in Kansas in October. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says that’s exactly what happened in southwest Kansas in 2002.

WW1 10-22

WHAT IS A HARD FREEZE?Defining a “hard freeze” is complicated because the temperature at which it can occur varies across the United States. In most regions it’s 28-degrees. However, it can be as cold as 25-degrees in some locations and as warm as 32-degrees in others.

WW2 10-22

EXPECT A TRICK OR TREAT History proves that Halloween weather in Kansas can be a trick or a treat. A treat is having highs in the 70s and lows in the 40s or 50s, while a trick is highs only in the 30s and lows in the teens and 20s.

NOTE: Mary Knapp has retired from Kansas State University. The Weather Wonders series is also being retired and this is the final week it is being produced.

WW3 10-22

OCTOBER HIGHS AND LOWSBecause October is a transitional month for Kansas, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says it’s not uncommon to see summer-like daytime high temperatures and winter-like nighttime low temperatures.

WW1 10-15

A RECORD-BREAKING SNOWAn early season snow event in northeast and north central Kansas produced accumulations of 3 to 8 inches, with a few places receiving 9 to 11 inches. Trees still had leaves and the heavy, wet snow caused extensive damage to limbs and subsequently to power lines and transformers.

WW2 10-15

RISK OF CARBON MONOXIDEAs winter sets in, people are turning to auxiliary heat sources. Whether it’s an old-fashioned wood stove or a modern furnace, if it involves combustion, carbon monoxide is a risk.

WW3 10-15

MEASURING SNOW DEPTHWhen it snows, everyone wants to know just how much snow fell. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says snow boards – thin, flat pieces of wood about two feet square, painted white – are used to accurately measure snow depth.

WW1 10-08

TYPES OF HYDROMETEORSHydrometeor is any product of condensation or deposition of atmospheric water vapor. Not surprisingly, there are a lot of hydrometeors, including rain drops, fog, blowing snow and sea spray.

WW2 10-08

TWO OCTOBER TORNADOESOctober is certainly not a peak month for tornadoes in Kansas. However, there have been tornado outbreaks reported. Two notable events occurred on the same date – October 16th – in 1980 and again in 1998.

WW3 10-08

FACTORS INFLUENCING FROST Have you ever wondered why we see frost on some cold days and not on others? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says there are several factors that can influence the development of frost.

WW1 10-01

A HEAVY, WET OCTOBER SNOWHopefully, winter weather is still several months away. However, Kansas has recorded snowfall – heavy, wet snowfall – in October. North Central Kansas saw such a storm in 1992.

WW2 10-01

DEADLY UPPER MIDWEST FIRESOctober 8th marks the 150th anniversary of a series of fires in the Upper Midwest that burned millions of acres, destroyed thousands of buildings and killed more than 1,200 people.

WW3 10-01

1939 WEST COAST HURRICANEIt’s been an active hurricane season in the Atlantic. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says hurricanes in the east Pacific can also impact the continental U.S. – like the one in 1939 that produced heavy rain in Los Angeles and Mount Wilson.

WW1 09-24

EARLIEST AND LATEST FREEZEWhether you garden, are an allergy sufferer or just curious, many people want to know when we’ll see the first freeze of the season. Depending on where you live in Kansas, it could be soon – or it could be a long wait.

WW2 09-24

THE BEST SEASON OF THE YEARNo one knows exactly where the term “Indian Summer” originated, but it can arrive any time from September to mid-November because it’s triggered by a specific event.

WW3 09-24

SEPTEMBER SNOW IN KANSAS?September is not typically a month in which Kansas expects to see a lot of snow. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says western Kansas received heavy snow of six to 12 inches in 1995, snapping trees, power lines and damaging immature crops.

WW1 09-17

ARE NIGHT AND DAY REALLY EQUAL?This year’s autumnal equinox is September 22nd. The thought is that the night and day are both equal in length: 12 hours. However, it’s not that simple. For example, in Manhattan, night and day come closest to being equal length on September 26th – four days later than the official equinox.

WW2 09-17

A YEAR OF FLOODING IN KANSASFlood events were common in Kansas in 1993. One of the worst events occurred across six southeast Kansas counties in late-September.

WW3 09-17

WHAT DRIVES FALL COLOR?As leaves start to turn across Kansas, many people wonder why the vibrancy of color varies from year to year. In addition to decreased photosynthesis, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says several weather factors can influence the kind of display we might see.

WW1 09-10

WHAT CAUSES DEW TO FORM?If you’re growing tired of having wet shoes after walking across the lawn in the morning, remember that it probably won’t last long. Dew only occurs when several factors are present: warm, moist soils; clear still nights, and high relative humidity.

WW2 09-10

A CONDITION KNOWN AS “FAIR”The local weather forecast calls for “fair” skies. However, you can clearly see clouds. The term “fair” is used when there aren’t enough clouds to impact aviation, but the skies are perfectly clear either.

WW3 09-10

AUGUST FOG, WINTER SNOWFog, visible on several days in August, forms when the temperature and dew point temperature are almost equal. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says there is also folk lore regarding August fog and the number of snow days there will be in winter.

WW1 09-03

THE “GALVESTON” HURRICANEThe “Galveston” hurricane that occurred on September 8, 1900, ranks as the greatest weather disaster in U.S. history. More than 6,000 people were killed in Galveston and another 1,200 died outside the immediate area.

WW2 09-03

THE RED AND HARVEST MOONSThe August full moon, sometimes called the red moon, owes its color to particulates in the atmosphere. If you missed its brilliant red color last month, you’ll likely have another chance to experience it in September when the full moon, often called the Harvest Moon, occurs.

WW3 09-03

CIVIL AND NAUTICAL TWILIGHTTwilight refers to the time before sunrise and after sunset when natural light is reflected by the upper atmosphere. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp looks at two specific types of twilight: civil and nautical.

WW1 08-27

LIGHTNING STARTED FIRESWestern states often experience lightning started fires in summer, especially if it’s been dry. Kansas can also experience lightning started fires, such as the one in Haskell County in 1982.

WW2 08-27

FAR-REACHING HURRICANES– There have been a number of hurricanes this year – prompting the question about whether hurricanes have ever reached Kansas. The short answer is No! However, remnants of hurricanes have been experienced as far north as Nebraska. 

WW3 08-27

THE BERMUDA HIGHA semi-permanent area of high pressure in the North Atlantic is a major contributor to the hot, hazy days we experience during late summer. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains how this area of high pressure can funnel in hot humid tropical air.

WW1 08-20

REPEATING STORMSIn 2016, north-central Kansas received heavy rain over an 18-24 hour period. What is most notable about the storm is that a stationary front developed in a small swath of Osborne and Jewell county, causing repeating storms and flooding.

WW2 08-20

KRAKATOA ERUPTSOne of the most powerful volcanic eruptions ever recorded occurred in Indonesia in 1883. The explosion was heard thousands of miles away and triggered tsunamis up to 125 feet high.

WW3 08-20

HIGH WINDS; NO TORNADOA portion of Barton County and the west side of Wichita sustained extensive damage from a thunderstorm in August of 1991. Winds topped 70 miles per hour, but Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says there were no reported tornadoes.

WW1 08-13

HEAVY AUGUST RAIN EVENTAugust is a relatively dry month for Kansas. However, that was not the case in 2018 for those in Grant and Dodge City – where as much as 8 inches of rain fell in a span of about five hours.

WW2 08-13

THERMOMETER OR CRICKETS?Did you know that you can calculate the outdoor temperature by listening to the crickets? As for the accuracy? Studies have shown, if done correctly, it’s accurate to within a degree or two.

WW3 08-13

SNOW? NOT IN THE SUMMERSnow is recorded in the same column as other frozen precipitation, so a quick glance of the weather records might make you think Kansas has received snow in July and August. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says the temperature on those days rules out the chance of snow.

WW1 08-06

ELEVATED NIGHT READINGS– Studies show some of the greatest health risks associated with a heat wave occur when temperatures stay elevated during the night time. In 1934 and ‘36, Kansas set a number of records for the highest 5-day average minimum temperatures.    

WW2 08-06

COLD WEATHER IN AUGUST?Kansas has recorded some cool days and one cold night in August. However, the state has never recorded a freezing temperature.

WW3 08-06

UNPLEASANTLY WARM, HUMIDThe first known use of the term “muggy” was in 1728. It’s thought to derive from the Old Norse word “mug” referring to drizzle. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says “muggy” accurately describes the recent weather in eastern Kansas.

WW1 07-30

A STRETCH OF VERY HOT DAYS– Longtime residents of Horton and Minneapolis will remember August of 2000 as an extremely hot month. Temperatures that month in eastern Kansas were 95-degrees or above on as few as 15 days at Horton and as many as 29 days at Minneapolis.

WW2 07-30

WHAT INFLUENCES HUMIDITY?As humidity levels increase, many wonder why it’s higher in one area than another. While lakes have a localized impact on humidity, bigger factors for the difference could be vegetation, terrain and the closeness to a river.

WW3 07-30

VIEWING METEOR SHOWERSThe peak of the perseids shower usually occurs just before mid-August. If you want to see it in the northern hemisphere, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says the best view requires staying up late and fully reclining in a lawn chair.

WW1 07-23

A DAMAGING JULY STORMIn 2002, severe thunderstorms in north central and northeast Kansas produced heavy rain, large hail and damaging winds. In addition to flooding, lightning struck several locations, starting a fire at an electrical plant in Manhattan.

WW2 07-23

TWO DAMAGING WILDFIRESTwo large wildfires that burned out of control in Ellsworth and Lincoln counties in 2006 consumed over 1,000 acres of grassland before being extinguished. The windy weather conditions that day enabled the fire to spread rapidly.

WW3 07-23

SEVERE STORM COMPLEXA severe thunderstorm complex which started in Nebraska and expanded as it moved south into Kansas, tore a 150 mile long path and was from 25 to 75 miles wide. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp details the path and timeline of this massive storm system.

WW1 07-16

AN OPPRESSIVE HEAT WAVEIn 2010, Kansas had afternoon heat index values of 105 to 112 degrees from July 16th through the 24th. The heat wave killed over 2,600 cattle in up to 10 central and southwest feedlots and resulted in monetary losses of around $7 million.

WW2 07-16

THE “DOG DAYS” OF SUMMERAlthough the “dog days” of summer are often associated with “man’s best friend” – it actually dates back to ancient Greece and Rome and the rising of Sirius, the Dog Star.

WW3 07-16 

SEVERE WIND DAMAGEIt’s possible to have tornado-like damage without experiencing an actual tornado. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says that happened in Manhattan in July, 2009.

WW1 07-09

JULY CAN OFFER RELIEFWhile we often associate July with hot weather, there have been a few years when the temperatures were well below normal – even if it was just for a day or two.

WW2 07-09

HIGHEST TEMPERATUREKansas experienced record high temperatures during the Dust Bowl. The highest temperature ever recorded in the state was 121 degrees – and it happened twice in 1936 on different dates and at separate locations.

WW3 07-09

MOTHER NATURE’S FIREWORKSSometimes the most impressive fireworks aren’t manufactured. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says Mother Nature celebrated the Fourth of July by putting on an impressive hail, lightning and high wind display that covered the western two-thirds of Kansas.

WW1 07-02

CALCULATING THE HEAT INDEX We often hear people say “it’s not the heat, it’s the humidity”…while that’s usually meant to be a joke, it’s true. The higher the temperature and relative humidity, the higher the heat index.

WW2 07-02

THE HEAT STRESS TRILOGYAs summer temperatures soar, we need to take steps to protect ourselves from the heat stress trilogy: heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

WW3 07-02

BARTON COUNTY THUNDERSTORM4-to-6 inches of rain in June would make most people happy. However, when that amount of rain falls in two hours, it often causes problems. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp details how such a storm impacted those in and around Hoisington and Great Bend.

WW1 06-25

STRONG RIDGE OF HIGH PRESSUREDepending on its strength, storm systems moving along the edge of a ridge of high pressure can entirely miss out on the rains or see repeated storm systems.

WW2 06-25

DRY LIGHTNING SPARK WILDFIRESThunderstorms that produce lots of lightning but little rain are known as dry thunderstorms or dry lightning. Unfortunately, these storms can spark wildfires.

WW3 06-25

PHILLIPS COUNTY TORNADOA 100 yard wide EF1 tornado traveled nearly 4 miles through Phillips County and into Norton County before moving into Nebraska. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says the June 21, 2011 tornado didn’t cause any injuries and only damaged a few farm outbuildings.

WW1 06-18

OPPRESSIVE HEAT, HUMIDITYThe recent heat is nothing new for June in Kansas. In fact, June 20-23, 2010, saw heat indices of 103 to 107 in central, south-central and southeast Kansas.

WW2 06-18

JUNE, 2012 WAS REALLY HOTThe record high temperature for June in Kansas is 118-degrees. That record was set at the Norton Dam reporting station. When the month ended, 22 reporting stations had their highest ever June temperature.

WW3 06-18

A RIDGE OF HIGH PRESSUREA ridge, meteorologically, is defined as an elongated area of relatively high atmospheric pressure. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains how this ridge impacts weather and why it’s called a “death ridge” by storm chasers.

WW1 06-11

HUMIDITY AND RAIN CHANCESIs there a correlation between high humidity and rainfall later in the day or at night? While it seems logical for there to be a connection, high humidity doesn’t necessarily mean rain.

WW2 06-11

WHAT IS A CAPPED INVERSION?Conditions seem well-suited for storm development, but nothing happens. Why? The most likely cause is a capped inversion which slows or prevents the development of thunderstorms.

WW3 06-11

1966 HAILSTORM DAMAGEOne of the worst hailstorms in east-central, central and northwestern Kansas occurred in early June. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp looks at this 1966 storm that damaged about 50 of the state’s 105 counties.

WW1 06-04

RAINING CATS AND DOGS?We use a lot of different phrases to describe heavy rainfall. While they’re all very descriptive, they’re not very accurate. However, “gully washer” is more accurate than it’s “raining cats and dogs” or it’s a “frog strangler.”

WW2 06-04

RAIN AND SOIL MOISTUREHow effective are rains in adding to soil moisture? It depends. Soil type and the rate that the rain is falling both impact soil moisture. You can watch the impact of rainfall on the Kansas Mesonet Soil Moisture page: mesonet.ksu.edu/agriculture/soilmoist.

WW3 06-04

WHEN DOES SUMMER BEGIN?Depending on who you ask, there are several potential answers regarding when summer begins. For some, it might be when classes end or the start of Memorial weekend. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says there’s also a climatological answer to that question.

WW1 05-28

RILEY COUNTY FLASH FLOODIn 2011, Riley County experienced heavy rains on June 1st and 2nd. The runoff produced flash flooding in Manhattan, resulting in the closing of the intersection of Anderson Avenue and Scenic Road and evacuating residents in several areas of town. There was also a major flooding problem near Ogden.

WW2 05-28

A SERIES OF THUNDERSTORMSOsage and Franklin counties experienced intense thunderstorm activity on June 4, 1990. The system, which moved along a path from Eskridge to just east of Ottawa, produced localized down burst winds and very heavy rain, causing considerable crop and property damage.

WW3 05-28

UDALL TORNADO TRAGEDY The deadliest tornado in Kansas history occurred in Udall on May 25, 1955. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says 80 people were killed. Their plight brought rapid change in weather forecasting and severe weather warning systems nationwide.

WW1 05-21

A CUTOFF LOW IS UNUSUALThe Tribune Experiment Field recorded 5.66 inches of rain May 16th, followed by an additional 0.67 inches on the 17th – highly unusual for a station that’s normal annual total is 18.44 inches. The cause was a cutoff low which can remain stationary for days, resulting in repeated heavy rain over the same area.

WW2 05-21

A TORNADO WITH NO LOGICSevere storms in Kansas often move in the same general direction. However, there can be exceptions. That’s exactly what happened in Ottawa County in 2013 – and the result was a tornado that caused EF3 damage, suggesting winds of 150 mph.

WW3 05-21

WIDESPREAD HAIL DAMAGESevere weather outbreaks during the spring and summer often feature hail. In 1995, golf ball size hail and 70 mile per hour winds caused major damage in eastern Colorado and west central Kansas. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says it also nearly hit a man as he lay in bed.

WW1 05-14

COLD MAY TEMPERATURESKansas saw some extremely cold temperatures in April. However, cold weather can extend into May and June. In fact, Kansas recorded low temperatures in the teens in 1907 and 1909.

WW2 05-14

TORNADO OR WALL CLOUD?Thunderstorms can produce cloud features that resemble a tornado. One of the most ominous is the wall cloud – which can become a tornado.

WW3 05-14

FOLLOW THE “30-30 RULE”The National Weather Service has devised a rule to help you determine when to seek shelter from a storm. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains how the “30-30 Rule” can be put into practice during stormy weather.

WW1 05-07

TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCESWhy is the temperature higher or lower within a relatively short distance? It’s probably because of the differences in terrain, elevation or local variations in air mass.

WW2 05-07

HISTORY OF TORNADO ALLEYThe term “tornado alley” is commonly used as tornado season arrives in the Central Plains. However, the fact that the term was first used in 1952 by U.S. Air Force meteorologists as the title of a research project may surprise a lot of people – even those living in Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska.

WW3 05-07

GREENSBURG TORNADOMay 4th marks the anniversary of a deadly and destructive tornado outbreak that almost destroyed Greensburg. Over a 4-hour period, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says 12 tornadoes ripped through four counties, killing 11 people in Greensburg and destroying over 90% of the town.

WW1 04-30

TORNADO SEASON BEGINSDespite the relatively quiet start, it is tornado season in Kansas. At this point, there have only been two tornadoes reported. However, history shows a slow start doesn’t mean we won’t have an active season, especially in May – our busiest month for tornadoes.

WW2 04-30

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSUREAtmospheric pressure, the pressure exerted over a particular point, is usually reported in terms of inches or in millibars. The pressure is reported as both station pressure and as sea-level pressure – which can make it confusing.

WW3 04-30

A LATE END TO WINTERWinter technically ends when spring begins. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp  says winter-like weather can extend into April and May. For example, a major blizzard hit western Kansas on April 30, 2017.

WW1 04-23

LATEST FREEZE DATESThe average date of last freeze varies across Kansas. In southeast Kansas, the average date for last freeze is April 8th, while in the northwest it’s May 8th.

WW2 04-23

FORMATION OF FROSTIt may be odd to see frost on a roof but not on the ground. However, there are a few explanations for why that might occur.

WW3 04-23

AMAZING SATELLITE IMAGERYThe recent volcano eruption on St. Vincent has been captured by satellites. The U.S. has been using satellite technology for more than 45 years. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says the technology keeps getting better, covers a wider area and gathers more information.

WW1 04-16

ONE MILLION DOLLAR TORNADOSpring tornadoes are common in Kansas. However an 1889 tornado that moved across east-central Kansas, killing 21 and injuring 250, also caused more than a million dollars damage – one of the few to top that mark in the 19th century.

WW2 04-16

HIGHEST APRIL TEMPERATURE?In Kansas, when the temperature soars above 100-degrees Fahrenheit, it usually occurs in June, July or August. However, it’s also topped the century mark in April.

WW3 04-16

APRIL CAN ALSO BE WINDYMarch is famous for its winds. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says April can also be blustery. As an example, she highlights a windstorm that blew through north central and northeastern Kansas in 2001.

WW1 04-09

A WINTER STORM IN APRIL?It may be spring, but that doesn’t mean winter-like conditions are totally behind us. Winter storms have hit Kansas in the past, dropping 5 to 6 inches of snow in Harvey and Chase Counties.

WW2 04-09

WHAT IS FUEL MOISTURE?Fuel moisture, a term used in fire weather discussions, is an attempt to gauge how much water is contained in vegetation and how likely it is to burn. However, to determine fuel moisture, you will need special wooden sticks and a calculator. 

WW3 04-09

STEVENS COUNTY WILDFIREAn early April wildfire burned nearly 1,000 acres in Stevens County in 2011.  Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp (nap) says the wildfire, suspected to have been begun from sparks off a railroad car, was quickly spread by winds of 40 to 50 miles per hour.

WW1 04-02

A FREEZE IS STILL POSSIBLEHistory teaches us that if a weather event happens once, it might just happen again. That could unsettling for people in extreme southeast Kansas. In 2007, a hard freeze on the nights of April 7th, 8th and 9th, caused over 38 million dollars damage to crops.

WW2 04-02

REALLY STRANGE WEATHERIt’s not unusual for Kansas to experience hail in April. However, it is out of the ordinary for one area to experience a strong thunderstorm, nickel size hail and then freezing rain in a single day.

WW3 04-02

A LATE MARCH TORNADOMarch is considered a transitional month for Kansas weather. As a result, we can experience a wide range of weather, including severe storms. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp details a late March tornado that occurred in in Riley County in 1993.

WW1 03-26

AN EXTREME DRY SPELLThe state received some beneficial rainfall this March. However, it was a different story in 1996. In fact, the period from July 1995 through March 1996, was the driest period ever at many locations across western Kansas.

WW2 03-26

ACCURATE OBSERVATION”April showers bring May flowers” is one of the more frequently quoted weather sayings. This is an accurate observation in Kansas because the moisture and warmer weather in April tends to produce an abundance of blooming plants in May.

WW3 03-26

WIND DIRECTION AND RAINThe spring equinox is March 20th and there’s a folk tale that suggests the wind direction on each of the days around the equinox predicts the rainfall for spring, summer and fall. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains which wind direction predicts dry, wet or normal weather.

WW1 03-19

FUELING STRONG STORMSLonger days mean more hours of sunshine. In turn, this provides more energy to the atmosphere which can fuel strong storms. So it’s no surprise that the start of tornado season in Kansas is March, with the peak month being May.

WW2 03-19

LIGHTNING-CAUSED FIRESThis has already been an active season for wildfires. Often these are human-set fires caused by burning ditches, burning trash or prescribed burns for pasture maintenance. However, nature can also ignite wildfires.

WW3 03-19

A DAMAGING MARCH LIONMarch can enter like a lion or a lamb. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp details a mid-March, 1963, frontal system that had winds in excess of 80 miles per hour.

WW1 03-12

A LION OF A WIND STORMIn 1971, an intense low pressure system moved from south central Nebraska to southeast Iowa bringing strong winds to Kansas. The 50 to 70 mile per hour winds, with gusts up to 90 miles per hour, created blizzard conditions in parts of Kansas and blowing dust in other parts of the state.

WW2 03-12

TRANSITIONAL WEATHERMarch is a transitional month. As a result, the weather in Kansas might be cold or it might be warm – even hot. In 1907, Dodge City recorded high temperatures at or above 90 degrees on several days.

WW3 03-12

HIGH WIND WARNINGSStrong winds are common during severe thunderstorms. However, any wind greater than 25 miles per hour can create problems. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says it’s important to pay attention to wind advisories and high wind warnings.

WW1 03-05

AN EARLY LAST FREEZEThe average date for the last spring freeze in Kansas is typically mid-to-late April. However, there have been years when various locations recorded their last spring freeze in early March.

WW2 03-05

HUMAN IMPACT OF WINDWind can provide welcome relief on hot days and unwelcome wind chills on other days. And, the longer the wind persists, the more likely it is to provoke irritability.

WW3 03-05

MARCH: A LION OR LAMB?The lion and lamb in the catch phrase about March weather refers to the wind. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains some of the reasons why March can be windy.

WW1 02-26

GETTING WEATHER ALERTSNational Severe Weather Preparedness Week begins March 1st. Being able to reliably receive alerts and other critical weather information is one area of focus for this year’s campaign.

WW2 02-26

FLOOD SAFETY FACTS, TIPSMost flood hazards in Kansas come in two forms: general flooding and flash flooding. Understanding the difference and the dangers each pose can help keep you and your family safe.

WW3 02-26

SNOWFALL AND THUNDER?In addition to the extreme cold, some people in Texas recently experienced an unusual weather event: snowfall accompanied by rumbles of thunder. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains how this weather event gets recorded.

WW1 02-19

WHAT IS HYPOTHERMIA?Hypothermia occurs when the body’s core temperature reaches 95-degrees or less. While we often think hypothermia is caused by extreme cold, that’s not always the case. 

WW2 02-19

FEBRUARY DUST STORMKansas is often associated with the Dust Bowl of the 1930’s. However, it also has a connection to a major dust storm in the 1970’s. This dust storm occurred in late February, 1977 – which ranked as the 16th driest in Kansas since 1895 and marked the close of the 6th driest winter.

WW3 02-19

WHAT IS AN ALBERTA CLIPPER?Phenomena that cause a dramatic change in the weather are often given special or descriptive names. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says that’s the reason we are familiar with the term “Alberta Clipper” in Kansas.

WW1 02-12

WATER EQUIVALENT OF SNOWThe air temperature when snow is formed plays a major role in how much moisture is produced. With temperatures slightly above or below freezing, it may only take 10 inches of snow to produce an inch of water. In very cold temperatures it might take 30 inches of snow to get an inch of water.

WW2 02-12

FEBRUARY CAN ALSO BE WARMThe extreme cold we’ve experienced this February provides a reminder that it’s still winter. However, there have been times when February – at least briefly – felt more like summer.

WW3 02-12

AN ATMOSPHERIC RIVERIf you’ve been hearing the term “atmospheric river” but don’t have any idea what it is, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says it’s a long, narrow region in the atmosphere that moves water vapor outside of the tropics. And, more importantly, it can produce moisture in the Central Plains.

WW1 02-05

A MAJOR WINTER STORMFebruary 10th is the anniversary of a major blizzard in northwest Kansas. In 1993, that region experienced heavy snow, 50 mph winds, 5 foot snow drifts and wind chills of 20 to 50 below.

WW2 02-05

NOT SO LOVELY WEATHERValentine’s Day is about expressing love and friendship. However, the weather is not always cooperative. In 1905, the romantic holiday was bitterly cold and in 1991 there was a black blizzard.

WW3 02-05

GROUNDHOG DAY ACCURACYFebruary 2nd is Groundhog Day – a day that marks the midpoint between winter solstice and the spring equinox. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says there are several “official” groundhogs across North America. But, are their forecasts accurate?

WW1 01-29

SNOW AND ICE ALBEDO VALUESThere is a scientific name for light reflecting off snow and ice. “Albedo” is the term used to describe the amount of visible light reflected by a surface as a percentage of the total visible light that is cast on the surface. And, it explains why sunglasses are worn in the winter.

WW2 01-29

THE “SCIENCE” OF SNOWFLAKESIt’s said that no two snowflakes are alike. To understand why, we need to distinguish between snow crystals and snowflakes and how temperature determines how snow crystals form.

WW3 01-29

MADDEN-JULIAN OSCILLATIONWhile it probably doesn’t garner as much attention as an El Nino or La Nina weather pattern, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says the Madden-Julian oscillation also impacts storminess and temperatures in the U.S.

WW1 01-22

HOW DID THE ICE DISAPPEAR?Sublimation is when a substance goes directly from a solid state to a vapor state – bypassing the liquid form. This explains how ice can magically disappear without melting.

WW2 01-22

A RECORD-BREAKING EVENT?– You often hear about a record-breaking snowfall or a record-breaking high or low temperature. But is it a record? If the time period used for comparison and significant climate periods are included, there’s a better chance that it is a record-breaking event.

WW3 01-22

SNOW ROLLERS ARE RAREAn unusual snow form that rarely occurs is a snow roller. However, when they do form, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says they’re a sight to see.

WW1 01-15

WHAT IS THE ‘DEEP FREEZE’?The phrase “deep freeze” is often used to describe cold weather. While this probably originated because a deep freezer is used to quickly freeze food and keep it at a very low temperature for a long time, the Urban dictionary has a meteorological definition that includes Arctic air and a polar vortex.

WW2 01-15

CONSIDER ICE TO BE UNSAFECanada, Alaska, the northern U.S. and Russia, have long-term cold weather that can produce clear, solid ice that’s thick enough to support an individual or even a car. Because Kansas does not experience deep winter conditions, ice on ponds and lakes should be considered unsafe at all times.

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 01-08-21AN INDICATOR OF BUDDING – Chill hours are when the minimum temperature is between 32 and 45 degrees Fahrenheit. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says accumulated chill hours are important because they help determine when some horticulture plants will start budding in the spring.WW1 01-08

A DEADLY WINTER STORMOne of the worst winter storms in Kansas occurred in mid-January, 1979. The storm produced heavy snowfall in the northeast, 45 mile per hour winds that caused blowing and drifting snow and wind chills of 30 to 40 degrees below zero.

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1886 AND 1888 BLIZZARDSKansas experienced two of its worst blizzards in mid-January of 1886 and 1888. In fact, the losses were probably greater than those reported at the time.

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 01-01-21WEST WIND WARMTH – South winds are generally associated with bringing warm temperatures, especially in the fall and winter. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says a predominately west wind can also bring warm temperatures that result from compression.WW1 01-01
 01-01-21THE WARMEST JANUARY –January in Kansas is typically cold. However, there are always exceptions. In fact, January 2006 was the warmest on record.WW2 01-01
 01-01-21A MAJOR WINTER STORM – In 1993, northeastern Kansas experienced a major snow event. It began in the late evening of the 8th and fell heavy through the next day. Topeka had a 24-hour snowfall total of 17.2 inches and Valley Falls had 15 inches.WW3 01-01
 12-25-20WHAT IS A POLAR VORTEX? – ”Polar vortex” is a term we’re hearing more frequently during extremely cold weather. But, what is a polar vortex? According to Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp, the National Weather Service says it’s a large area of low pressure and cold air surrounding both of the Earth’s poles with a counter-clockwise flow of air.WW1 12-25
 12-25-20AVERAGE ANNUAL SNOWFALL– The average annual snowfall in Kansas is 19 inches. However, reporting station averages are well below and well above that amount, with the single season record close to 100 inches.WW2 12-25
 12-25-20NEW YEAR’S SNOW AND COLD– On average, Kansas is more likely to see snow and ice on New Year’s Eve than on Christmas. In fact, there have been some memorable snow storms and record-cold temperatures.WW3 12-25
 12-18-20THE SUN STANDING STILL – This year, the winter solstice – which many in the northern hemisphere consider to be the start of winter – begins on December 21st. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says the event got its name because for several days before and after the solstice, the sun’s noontime position appears to be the same.WW1 12-18
 12-18-20IT’S A WHITE CHRISTMAS – There are many ways to define a White Christmas. It’s a White Christmas for most if there’s snow on the ground or if snow falls on the 25th. But, how common is a White Christmas for northeastern Kansas?WW2 12-18
 12-18-20CHRISTMAS TORNADOES – Christmas in Kansas is expected to be cold and possibly snowy. That was not the case in southwest Kansas in 2016. Instead of typical winter weather, they had tornadoes.WW3 12-18
 12-11-20A POWERFUL SNOW STORM– In 1987, heavy snow from the Southern High Plains to the Middle Mississippi Valley dumped nearly a foot of snow in Kansas City, Missouri. This set a 24 hour record for December. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp takes a closer look at this powerful storm.WW1 12-11
 12-11-20 NO, IT’S REALLY TOO DRY!– While we often hear people say it’s too cold to snow, it’s really too dry to snow. In order to have precipitation, condensation has to occur at a greater rate than evaporation. When that happens, precipitation occurs, regardless of the temperature.WW2 12-11
 12-11-20 PROCESS FOR ADVISORIES– Winter weather advisories can change significantly over the course of a week. The process used by the National Weather Service, which begins with a four to six day outlook in advance of a system, isn’t fully refined until the last 6-to-24 hours of the approaching storm.WW3 12-11
 12-04-20HOARFROST, RIME OR GLAZE?– Winter weather features a variety of moisture depositions. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains the difference between hoarfrost, rime and glaze.WW1 12-04 
 12-04-20AN EPIC ICE STORM IN KANSAS– Eastern Kansas was hit by an epic ice storm in December, 2007. The ice storm, measuring two inches in some areas, caused millions of dollars in damage and left thousands without power for more than a week.WW2 12-04 
 12-04-20MATERIALS FOR “MELTING” ICE– The most widely used material for treating ice on sidewalks and driveways include blends with a combination of various salts. However, some are more effective at colder temperatures and some are more toxic for plants and pets. WW3 12-04
 11-27-20CARBON MONOXIDE RISK– Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless toxic gas that can be deadly. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says the heating sources we use – if they involve combustion – bring the risk of carbon monoxide.WW1 11-27
 11-27-20THREE STATES OF WATER– Water is one of the few chemicals that can be found in all three states – solid, liquid and gas. This time of year, you might see all three stages on area lake and ponds.WW2 11-27
 11-27-20METEOROLOGICAL WINTER– December, January and February are the three months that make up what’s known as meteorological winter. And, while we think of December as a cold month in Kansas, that isn’t always the case.WW3 11-27
 11-20-20THE DRIEST NOVEMBER– November has been dry. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says it won’t go down as the driest November because there was some precipitation.WW1 11-20 
 11-20-20THANKSGIVING STORMS– November in Kansas can be an adventure. It can go from warm and sunny to cold and snowy or icy in a matter of hours. Two notable Thanksgiving storms occurred in 1983 and 1996.WW2 11-20 
 11-20-20HOW TO FIND A FOGBOW– Fogbow may sound like a fake meteorological term but it’s actually a cousin of a rainbow. They can be seen anywhere there’s a thin fog and fairly bright sunshine. However, you’ll need to be in the right position to see it.WW3 11-20 
 11-13-20FREEZING RAIN– When warm moist air overrides cold air at the surface, we get freezing rain. The precipitation falls as liquid and then freezes on contact. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp  says this can cause a variety of hazards and damage.WW1 11-13
 11-13-20WINTER SAFETY– It’s common for Kansas and the Central Plains to see rapidly changing weather conditions as we move from fall to winter. In addition, there can be a big difference between the low and high temperature, forcing many people to dress in layers.WW2 11-13
 11-13-20“INVISIBLE” ICE– The term “black ice” has evolved over time. Originally, it was used to describe a thin layer of new ice on fresh or salt water. Now, “black ice” is used to describe a thin layer of ice on a road or sidewalk that’s nearly invisible.WW3 11-13
 11-06-20WHAT IS A “CUT-OFF” LOW?– A “cut-off” low is a meteorological term you might not hear very often. So, what is it? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says it is a closed upper-level low pressure system that is detached from the basic westerly wind flow.WW1 11-06
 11-06-20A DRAMATIC COLD WAVE– On November 11, 1911, the central United States experienced perhaps the most dramatic cold wave on record. This arctic front resulted in multiple locations recording a record high and a record low on the same day.WW2 11-06
 11-06-20HEATING DEGREE DAYS– Those monitoring winter energy use, might be interested in learning about heating degree days – a method used as an indication of energy needs. Under this formula, as the heating degree days accumulate, so do the fuel demands.WW3 11-06
 10-30-20DAYLIGHT SAVINGS?– We “fall back” the first Sunday in November in an effort to shift activities ruled by the clock to hours with more daylight. However, despite it being known as daylight savings, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says we really aren’t saving any daylight.WW1 10-30
 10-30-20THE WARM AND COLD– November can be a difficult month for predicting how warm or cold it will be. There have been years when the average mean temperature was in the 50s and others when it was in the mid-30s.WW2 10-30
 10-30-20HEAVY SNOW TOTALS– Northwest Kansas frequently receives the heaviest snowfall amounts. However, when the rain/snow line is on the southern edge of the storm, other parts of the state can see significant snow totals of the state.WW3 10-30
 10-23-20WHAT IS A HARD FREEZE?– For most of the United States, a hard freeze is when temperatures drop below 28-degrees for several hours during the growing season. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says the threshold is different for some areas.WW1 10-23 
 10-23-20DEADLY HURRICANE MITCH– 2020 has been an active year for hurricanes. One of the deadliest hurricanes on record occurred in Honduras in 1998. Total deaths attributed to Hurricane Mitch stand at 11,000 with up to an additional 18,000 missing.WW2 10-23 
 10-23-20TRICK OR TREAT WEATHER– In Kansas, Halloween weather is expected to have highs in the 60s, lows in the mid-30s to around 40 and a 30% chance of moisture. However, there can also be Halloween extremes. WW3 10-23
 10-16-20TRANSITIONAL TEMPERATURES– October is a transitional weather month. As a result, Kansas often sees a variety of temperature swings during the month. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp details the swings experienced in 2016.WW1 10-16
 10-16-20ICE ACCUMULATIONS IN OCTOBER– Kansas, well-known for weather extremes, typically doesn’t experience ice storms in October. However, freezing drizzle and freezing rain occurred over much of southwest Kansas on October 23rd, 2002, causing damage to trees and power lines.WW2 10-16
 10-16-20A MAJOR EARLY WINTER STORM– A major late fall blizzard struck part of western Kansas on October 25th, 1997, dumping 10 to 24 inches of snow across the area. Strong north winds created 15 to 20 foot drifts, closing roads for several days.WW3 10-16
 10-09-20WHAT DOES “FAIR” MEAN?– The forecast says it’ll be “fair” today. However, the clouds in the sky have you wondering why it isn’t cloudy or partly cloudy. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains why “fair” is the right term to use.WW1 10-09
 10-09-20HURRICANE HAZEL STRIKES– An October, 1954 hurricane along the Carolina coastline demolished every pier along a 170-mile stretch, destroying entire lines of beach homes and 15-hundred other homes as it moved inland with 17-foot tides and 150 mph winds.WW2 10-09
 10-09-20TORNADOES IN OCTOBER?– May is typically the peak season for tornadoes in Kansas. However, tornadoes have occurred in October. Learn more about two October tornadoes that struck Kansas in 1980 and 1998.WW3 10-09
 10-02-20JET STREAM POSITION– Shifts in the position and strength of the jet stream greatly affect the placement and movement of storm systems across the United States. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp (nap) says that’s why most weather maps indicate the position of the jet stream.WW1 10-02
 10-02-201992 FALL SNOWSTORM– An October 7, 1992 snowstorm dumped as much as 10 inches of snow in north central Kansas, causing widespread tree and power line damage and marking the start of a very snowy winter.WW2 10-02
 10-02-20UPPER MIDWEST FIRES– Nearly 150 years ago, a series of fires in the upper Midwest burned millions of acres of land, destroying thousands of buildings and killing more than 1,500 people in Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan.WW3 10-02
 09-25-20A RECORD EARLY SNOW– September is not a month we think of as being snowy. However, it has happened. In fact, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says Goodland set a new record this year for an early September snow.WW1 09-25
 09-25-20A RECORD EARLY FREEZE– A new record for earliest freezing temperatures in Kansas was recorded at the National Weather Station at Tribune on September 9th – beating the previous record by four days.WW2 09-25
 09-25-20WHAT IS INDIAN SUMMER?– No one knows exactly where it originated, but Indian Summer traces back to the 1770s. It can arrive any time from September to mid-November and it’s triggered by the first frost of the fall.WW3 09-25
 09-18-20THE AUTUMNAL EQUINOX– Many think the autumnal equinox is the day in which night and day are the same length – 12 hours. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says that’s not entirely true.WW1 09-18
 09-18-20MIGHT WE SEE A FREEZE? According to official weather records, Kansas could see its first freeze sometime this month. However, those same records show it could be October or November before the first freeze occurs.WW2 09-18
 09-18-20THE REASONS FOR FROST– Generally, the temperature needs to reach 32 degrees – the point at which water freezes – for frost to form. However, there are several factors that can influence whether frost occurs.WW3 09-18
 09-11-20A COLORFUL DISPLAY– There are several factors that influence the vibrant colors we see displayed on trees in the fall. The biggest factor is decreased photosynthesis. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says weather can also influence fall colors.WW1 09-11
 09-11-20A TRUE SNOW BOARD– For many, a snow board is something you use to glide down a snow-covered slope. However, there are some who picture a snow board as a way to accurately measure snow depth.WW2 09-11
 09-11-20SEEING YOUR BREATH– We all remember how much fun it was to see our breath when we were kids. But we could only do it on certain days. That’s because two factors have to occur for us to see our breath.WW3 11-09
 09-04-20SUMMER SNOW IN KANSAS?– Weather data for Kansas may make it appear as though Kansas has recorded snow in July and August. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says it’s because of the way frozen precipitation is recorded.WW1 09-04
 09-04-20NO HURRICANES IN KANSAS– It’s been an active year for hurricanes. While no hurricanes have ever reached Kansas, a few tropical systems that were once hurricanes have made it as far north as Nebraska.WW2 09-04
 09-04-20AUGUST FOG; WINTER SNOW– Fog not only obscures your vision and makes travel difficult, folk lore claims it can predict how many days it will snow this winter – based on the number of foggy days there are in August.WW3 09-04
 08-28-20EARTHQUAKE WEATHER?– We know earthquakes occur, but is there any connection between earthquakes and the weather. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explores how that idea surfaced.WW1 08-28 
 08-28-20“THE KEYS HURRICANE”– One of the worst hurricanes ever to hit the U.S. occurred in early September in the Florida Keys. At least 400 people were killed, including highway workers building a link from Miami to Key West.WW2 08-28 
 08-28-20AN AUTUMN FULL MOON– The brilliant red color we see during a full moon this time of year is known as an Autumn full moon – sometimes called the red moon. Would you believe this amazing color is created by things close to the earth’s surface? WW3 08-28
 08-21-20THE “HORSE LATITUDES”– The famous trade winds can be found near the equator. As you move north of 30 degrees, you move into prevailing westerlies. Between these two areas, the winds would be fairly calm. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says that’s an area sailing ships should avoid.WW1 08-21
 08-21-20AN AUGUST FLASH FLOOD– Northeast Kansas experienced widespread flash flooding in August, 2004 when four-to-six inches of rain fell across parts of Douglas, Franklin, Johnson and Wyandotte counties. Water rescues had to be performed and numerous businesses and homes had water damage.WW2 08-21
 08-21-20WHAT IS THE DEW POINT?– The dew point is a temperature – the point to which air would have to col for its water vapor to reach saturation. But what else can the dew point tell us?WW3 08-21
 08-14-20HEAT STRESS TRILOGY– As the heat index continues to hover around 100-degrees, it’s important to be aware of the dangers that poses. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says there are three potential risks: heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke.WW1 08-14
 08-14-20AN AUGUST TORNADO– Kansas sees its peak tornado season in the spring – March, April and May. However, a late summer tornado is still possible. An August tornado in Barton County in 2005 caused significant damage to the airport, uprooted trees and peeled roofs off buildings.WW2 08-14
 08-14-20CLEAN AIR, POLLUTION– Today’s emphasis on environmental protection may be stronger than in past years, but it’s not new. In fact, clean air and pollution control laws have a long history.WW3 08-14
 08-07-20WEATHER FOLKLORE– Most weather-related folklore is about winter. While the predictions – often based on animals, such as wooly bears, squirrels and cows – are sometimes right, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says they’re just as likely to be wrong because they reflect what’s happening right now.WW1 08-07
 08-07-20A VERY HOT AUGUST– August in Kansas is typically hot. However, eastern Kansas experienced an extremely hot August in 2000. Temperatures were 95-degrees or above on as few as 15 days to as many as 29 days.WW2 08-07
 08-07-20RECORD HEAT IN 1936 – Kansas is no stranger to hot weather. However, the summer of 1936 was one for the record books. There were 53 days of 100-degree heat, including an all-time record high reading of 113-degrees in Kansas City, Missouri.WW3 08-07
 07-31-20A LOST LANDMARK – It’s common to hear property and crop damage estimates following a severe weather event. However, quantifying a historic loss can be difficult. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says that was the case when Belpre had its 108 year old balsam fir tree uprooted in a 1996 storm.WW1 07-31
 07-31-20IMPACTS OF A LA NINA– The impacts of a La Nina can be felt around the world. In the U.S., it typically means wetter than normal conditions in the Pacific Northwest and drier than normal conditions in southern California. In Kansas, a La Nina generally means a hot, dry Fall and a milder, drier than normal winter.WW2 07-31
 07-31-20NO FREEZES IN AUGUST– August in Kansas is generally warm-to-hot. However, the state has experienced a few days that would be considered cool-to-cold.WW3 07-31
 07-24-20A TRUE MONSOON– Many people associate “monsoons” with heavy rains. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says “monsoon” actually refers to a seasonal wind pattern.WW1 07-24
 07-24-20THUNDERSTORMS AND DUST– The Desert southwest is in its monsoon season – which means flash flooding and dust storms. These storms are typical of very dry regions and can reduce visibility to near zero.WW2 07-24
 07-24-20WHAT HAPPENED TO SUMMER?– The impact of a volcanic eruption in April of 1815, was still being felt a year later. In fact, it was responsible for what many in the northern hemisphere called the year without a summer.WW3 07-24
 07-17-20RUSH COUNTY FLOOD– Rush County experienced a major flood in 1993 when heavy rains caused the Walnut Creek and Big Timber Creek to swell and exceed their banks. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp looks at the widespread impact of the flood.WW1 07-17
 07-17-20SWEET SMELL OF RAIN– Oils are released from certain plants during dry conditions. During rain events, those oils are released into the atmosphere together with other compounds to produce a distinctive sweet smell.WW2 07-17
 07-17-20RECORD HIGH FOR JULY– Kansas has recorded several 100-degree days this summer. Now, imagine if the thermometer hit 121-degrees. That’s exactly what occurred in 1936 – and it happened twice!WW3 07-17
 07-10-20HISTORIC JULY FLOOD– One of the worst floods on the Kansas River occurred in July of 1951. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says this historic flood caused a billion dollars of property damage.WW1 07-10
 07-10-20DOG DAYS OF SUMMER– Although the phrase ‘dog days” is sometimes attributed to dogs showing signs of madness in mid-July to late August, it actually dates back to Greece and Rome when the Dog Star was a sign, and a cause, of the hot, sultry summer weather.WW2 07-10
 07-10-20THE 1934 HEAT WAVE– One of the worst heat waves in the history of the U.S. started on July 17, 1934. The average daily high in Emporia the week of July 19-25, 1934, was 110.6 degrees. The average high in Manhattan during that period was 110 degrees – and it was even hot at night!WW3 07-10
 07-03-20FOG, MIST OR HAZE?– Your view is obscured by something moist-looking. But is it fog, mist or haze? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says science has the answer.WW1 07-03
 07-03-20ATMOSPHERIC DUST– We’ve been hearing a lot about dust in the air. Did you know there’s actually a branch of science that studies dust and other pollutants in the atmosphere?WW2 07-03
 07-03-20RECORD JULY COLD– June, and especially July, are known for being hot rather than cold. However, there are instances where July temperatures have been much colder than normal.WW3 07-03
 06-26-20DETECTING A WAKE LOW– A wake low, or wake depression, was once difficult to detect in surface weather observations because of their broad spacing. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says the formation of mesoscale weather station networks has increased their detection.WW1 06-26
 06-26-20IMPACT OF HEAT BURSTS– Heat bursts are a rare atmospheric phenomenon that typically occur at night and are associated with decaying thunderstorms which can cause strong winds. In addition, heat bursts can create a sharp rise in temperature and a dramatic drop in relative humidity.WW2 06-26
 06-26-20IS THE ROAD REALLY WET?– A mirage, an optical illusion where the image of an object appears displaced, is more common in the desert or at sea. However, you can also see a mirage driving down the road in Kansas.WW3 06-26
 06-19-20A JUNE FLASH FLOOD– Rainfall totals of more than one foot in northern and western Republic County in 2003 resulted in runoff that caused widespread flash flooding. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says the runoff caused the Republic River to rise quickly and overflow – reportedly up to one mile wide in places. WW1 06-19
 06-19-20DEFINITION OF MUGGY– Muggy is defined as unpleasantly warm and humid. After a pleasantly cool May, the start of June has fit the description of muggy.WW2 06-19 
 06-19-20HAIL AND HIGH WINDS– Separately, hail and high winds can be damaging. Combined, the storm can be very destructive. That’s what happened in northwestern Kansas in late June, 1978 – killing cattle, damaging buildings and destroying crops. WW3 06-19
 06-12-20SUPER CELL THUNDERSTORM– The second largest two-day tornado outbreak in U.S. history occurred June 15, 1992 – and it started in Kansas. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says this super cell thunderstorm produced 39 tornadoes, including 12 in Mitchell County and 9 in Osborne County.WW1 06-12
 06-12-20A RIDGE OF HIGH PRESSURE– A ridge is an elongated area of relatively high atmospheric pressure. When it’s strong, storms moving along the ridge can produce dramatic differences in rainfall totals within a short distance.WW2 06-12
 06-12-20THAT’S A LOT OF DAYLIGHT! – The point in the earth’s orbit where its axis is most directly pointed toward the sun is known as the summer solstice. This year, in the northern hemisphere, it occurs on June 20th. This is also the season when we enjoy the most hours of daylight.WW3 06-12
 06-05-20REPEATED AREAS OF RAIN– Thunderstorms that move over the same region in a relatively short period of time is called training. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says these storms are  capable of producing excessive rainfall and flash flooding.WW1 06-05
 06-05-20WHEN IS IT A HEAT WAVE?– When the temperature and humidity remain high for an extended period, people often start talking about experiencing a heat wave. But what conditions are necessary and how many consecutive days of those conditions does it take before it’s officially a heat wave?WW2 06-05
 06-05-20CALCULATING HEAT INDEX – People often say “it’s not the heat, it’s the humidity” – and it’s true. Calculating the heat index requires both the current temperature and relative humidity. Depending on the humidity level, the heat index can be higher or lower than the actual temperature.WW3 06-05
 05-29-20COLDEST JUNE RECORDS– In Kansas, we typically don’t associate cold with June. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says it can happen. She details the coldest low and the coldest high temperature recorded for June.WW1 05-29
 05-29-20ASTONISHING HAILSTORM– It’s common to hear hail described as being pea-size, golf ball size or baseball size. However, sometimes it’s the amount of hail – not the size – that’s astonishing.WW2 05-29
 05-29-20IS IT A RARE ROLL CLOUD?– A roll cloud is typically associated with the gust front of a thunderstorm. While they appear to roll along the horizon, they are not funnel clouds. However, they shouldn’t be taken lightly.WW3 05-29
 05-22-20DEADLIEST KANSAS TORNADO– The Udall Tornado, the deadliest in Kansas history, occurred 65 years ago in northwest Cowley County. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says this tragic event led to rapid changes in the weather forecasting and severe weather warning systems nationwide.WW1 05-22 
 05-22-20LONG DISTANCE LIGHTNING Lightning from a thunderstorm can travel more than 25 miles. Even if the skies are blue, anyone within 25 or 30 miles, could be struck by lightning – leading to the phrase a bolt from the blue.WW2 05-22 
 05-22-20WHY DIDN’T RAIN DEVELOP?– The weather forecast calls for rain and it looks like it’s going to rain, but then nothing happens. Why? It could be the result of a capped inversion which slows or prevents the development of thunderstorms.WW3 05-22 
 05-15-20A HEAVY RAIN EVENT– Kiowa county in south central Kansas typically receives just over 25 inches of annual precipitation. On May 18, 1997, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says some locations in the county saw more than a third of that annual total in just four hours during a memorable rain and hail event.WW1 05-15
 05-15-20DAMAGING LIGHTNING – In May, 2001, Shawnee county experienced a series of lightning strikes that caused power outages, impacted water supplies in Topeka and surrounding areas and damaged the roof of a church.WW2 05-15
 05-15-20RESPECT LIGHTNING– Lightning is one of the major hazards of thunderstorms. On average, 67 people in the U.S. are killed each year by lightning. As a result, it’s important to know what to do when a severe thunderstorm is in the area, especially if you’re caught outside.WW3 05-15
 05-08-20STORM ENDS A MYTH – The legend about the hills around one particular Kansas community forcing severe storms to split and miss the town was put to an end on May 11th, 2000. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp details the extensive tornado damage that occurred on that date in Leavenworth County.WW1 05-08
 05-08-20A BOW-SHAPED IMAGE– Meteorologists sometimes mention a featured called “bow echo” during severe storm coverage. This radar feature is taken seriously because it can lead to tornado development.WW2 05-08 
 05-08-20A DERECHO IN KANSAS– A severe weather event in northeast Kansas in early May left most people thinking it was probably a tornado. However, it was actually a derecho. So why was it a derecho and not a tornado?WW3 05-08
 05-01-20MAY LOW TEMPERATURES– Kansas recorded some extremely cold low temperatures in April. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says it’s possible the state could still see more cold overnight lows. In 1907 and again in 1909, she says Kansas had low temperatures in the teens.WW1 05-01
 05-01-20AN ACTIVE TORNADO DAY– May is typically the most active tornado month for Kansas. One extremely active tornado day occurred May 7, 1961, in northeast Kansas. In a span of just 30 minutes, two tornadoes, four funnel clouds, severe winds and heavy rain swept through Jefferson, Leavenworth, Johnson and Wyandotte counties.WW2 05-01
 05-01-20SNOW, ICE PELLETS, HAIL– A directive from the National Weather Service regarding the reporting of frozen precipitation often makes it difficult to separate hail events from snow events, particularly in Plains states during the spring.WW3 05-01
 04-24-20WIND AND HAIL DAMAGE– Kansas has experienced some impressive hail events this spring, particularly in the western part of the state. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp  says they haven't been as impressive as a hail/wind event in southeast Kansas in late-April, 1970.WW1 04-24
 04-24-20LIGHTNING-CAUSED FIRES– In addition to the hazards of a direct strike, lightning can also start fires. In fact, nearly one-fifth of all home fires are caused by lightning strikes. As a result, now is a good time to check smoke detectors and review fire safety drills.WW2 04-24
 04-24-20LATEST DATE FOR A FREEZE– As daytime temperatures climb and nighttime temperatures don’t dip as low, we’re less likely to see a late freeze. However, that doesn’t mean it can’t happen in late April or even May.WW3 04-24
 04-17-20A MILLION DOLLAR TORNADO– Tornadoes that caused damage in excess of one million dollars were rare in the 19th century. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says Kansas sustained one of the few million dollar tornadoes on April 21st, 1889, when a tornado moved across the east-central part of the state.WW1 04-17 
 04-17-20APRIL HIGH TEMPERATURES– April can see a wide range of temperatures. This year, we’re seeing unusually cold temperatures. However, it was a different story in 1989. That year, Salina and Liberal each set record highs on April 23rd.WW2 04-17 
 04-17-20RECORD-SETTING APRIL SNOW– While it’s not necessarily common, Kansas can get snow in April. In fact, five western Kansas locations set April record snowfall totals in 2017, with one location receiving 20 inches!WW3 04-17 
 04-10-20HEAVY APRIL SHOWERS– We typically associate April with rain showers. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says that’s not always the case. In April 1991, parts of can Kansas experienced heavy rains that caused flooding, road closures and extensive property damage.WW1 04-10
 04-10-20MAKING MAY FLOWERS– You’ve probably been hearing people say “April showers bring May flowers” – but is that really true? In Kansas, the combination of moisture in April and warmer temperatures in May brings about an abundance of blooming plants.WW2 04-10
 04-10-20WINTER COLD IN APRIL?– We expect to see spring-like weather in April. However, that doesn’t mean Kansas won’t experience winter-like weather in April.  Here's some of the coldest low temperatures and coldest high temperatures ever recorded in Kansas in April.WW3 04-10
 04-03-20MEASURING RAINFALL– Rainfall can be measured many ways. However, using standard instruments to take manual measurements at ground level provides the most accurate and comprehensive data.WW1 04-03
 04-03-20FUEL-MOISTURE STICK– Fuel-moisture is a term you might hear used in fire weather discussions during the burning season. This is an attempt to gauge how much water is in the vegetation by weighing a special type of wooden stick.WW2 04-03
 04-03-20WHAT IS A MESONET?– A mesonet is a network of weather stations designed to measure mesoscale weather events. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says those are medium scale weather events.WW3 04-03
 03-27-20MEASURING PRECIPITATION– Most of the measurements that involve precipitation are collected by a network of volunteers. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says over 10,000 registered observers are using standard rain gauges to measure precipitation, including rain, hail and snow. WW1 03-27
 03-27-20APRIL FOOL’S DAY WEATHER– It’s not just your friends and family you need to worry about on April Fool’s Day, Mother Nature has also pulled off some impressive pranks, including extreme heat, cold, snow and rain.WW2 03-27 
 03-27-20HAVE FUN WITH PHENOLOGY – Phenology is the science which studies periodic biological events with relation to climate, especially seasonal changes. If you’re interested in this type of data collection, there’s way for you to participate.WW3 03-27 
 03-20-20PINEAPPLE EXPRESS– Pineapple Express refers to a strong flow of atmospheric moisture, and the attendant heavy rains, from waters near the Hawaiian Islands to the west coast of North America. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains how this system can impact the Central Plains.WW1 03-20 
 03-20-20FLOOD SAFETY FACTS– In Kansas, most flood hazards come in two forms: general flooding – the steady rise of surface water sources; and flash flooding – the rapid rise of water. WW2 03-20 
 03-20-20IT FEELS LIKE WINTER– Spring has arrived. However, early spring can sometimes feel like the dead of winter. In fact, March 27th marks the anniversary of three major winter storms in Kansas.WW3 03-20 
 03-13-202019 TORNADO STATISTICS– Severe weather season has arrived, and for many, that means tornado season. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says 2019 was an active year for tornadoes in Kansas, with May being the most active month.WW1 03-13
 03-13-20WIND DIRECTION AND RAIN – A folk prediction suggests wind direction the day before, the day of, and the day after the spring equinox can predict the rainfall for spring, summer and fall. WW2 03-13
 03-13-20RECEIVE WEATHER ALERTS– Severe weather is going to occur. The question is whether you’ll be prepared when it does. Staying up-to-date on critical weather information is critical.WW3 03-13
 03-06-20THUNDERSTORM WINDS– Tornadoes get a lot of attention during severe weather season. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says thunderstorm winds are usually more frequent and cause more damage. WW1 03-06
 03-06-20LONGER AND STRONGER– There is a physical connection between longer days and stronger storms. One reason is because more hours of sunshine provides more energy to the atmosphere which can fuel strong storms. WW2 03-06
 03-06-20AN EPIC WINTER STORM– Spring arrives on March 19th, but winter isn’t over yet. In fact, there was a massive snow storm that raged along the east coast about a week before spring arrived in 1993.WW3 03-06 
 02-28-20TRANSITION TO SPRING– The transition from winter to spring typically means March experiences warmer temperatures and varying wind conditions. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says the March catch phrase: “In like a lion, out like a lamb” refers to the wind.WW1 02-28
 02-28-20TEMPERATURE SWINGS– When it’s hot, we wear light weight clothing. When it’s cold, we add layers. What do wild animals and livestock do? They actually have several strategies for surviving wide temperature swings.WW2 02-28
 02-28-20DO WE SAVE DAYLIGHT?– The first Sunday in March marks the beginning of “daylight savings” – an effort to save energy by shifting activities ruled by the clock to hours with more daylight. But is it making a difference?WW3 02-28
 02-21-20KANSAS WILDFIRES– Every year, Kansas experiences wildfires that get out-of-control. Most of these wildfires are easily contained and cause little damage. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says that wasn’t the case with a wildfire that crossed into Kansas from Oklahoma in 2016.WW1 02-21
 02-21-20MAJOR DUST STORM– In 1977, a frontal boundary that swept across the Great Plains with strong winds and very high gusts, created a dust storm that reduced visibility on the east coast.WW2 02-21
 02-21-20LEAP YEAR NORMALS– A leap year not only add an extra day to February, it changes the way “normals” for that day are calculated for weather observations.WW3 02-21
 02-14-20TWILIGHT TERMS – Sunrise and sunset times are easy to understand. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says terms, such as twilight, civil twilight and nautical twilight are slightly more complicated. WW1 02-14
 02-14-20FEBRUARY HEAT– The month of February is often filled with temperature variability. But, just how warm can it get? WW2 02-14 
 02-14-20WATER VAPOR– Water vapor has such a big impact on cloud and storm formation, that its presence is characterized in many ways.WW3 02-14 
 02-07-20A FEBRUARY BLIZZARD– Northwest Kansas experienced a major blizzard in February of 1993. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says this two-day event produced up to 10 inches of snow and 50 mile per hour winds caused severe blowing and drifting.WW1 02-07
 02-07-20AN ARCTIC OUTBREAK– An arctic outbreak in February of 1899 pushed temperatures well below zero from the east coast all the way down to Texas. As this system moved south, Dodge City set an all-time low – but not nearly as low as a city in Nebraska.WW2 02-07
 02-07-20YOU WON’T LOVE THIS– Valentine’s Day is traditionally filled with roses and chocolates. However, the weather can be much less predictable. In fact, several Valentine’s Day events have left many without that loving feeling.WW3 02-07
 01-31-20WILDFIRE AWARENESS– Wildfire Awareness Week is February 3rd through the 7th. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says the relatively wet conditions Kansas has experienced this winter won’t prevent a wildfire – so we need to be practicing proper fire safety precautions.WW1 01-31 
 01-31-20AVOIDING HYPOTHERMIA– There are two types of hypothermia: acute and chronic. Acute hypothermia is the most dangerous and chronic hypothermia is most easily avoided.WW2 01-31 
 01-31-20IS IT REALLY A RECORD?– We often hear there was a record high or low temperature or a record rainfall or snowfall. However, several factors need to be considered before it can truly be called a record event.WW3 01-31 
 01-24-20THE WARMEST JANUARY– This January has been mild. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says it doesn’t compare to what Kansas experienced in 2006.WW1 01-24
 01-24-20THE SNOWIEST JANUARY– Kansas saw its share of snow this month. But how does it compare to previous years?WW2 01-24
 01-24-20MASSIVE WINTER STORM– Snowfall accumulations of six to 12 inches, coupled with temperatures in the single digits and sustained winds of 25 mph and gusts to 45 mph, created a historic winter storm.WW3 01-24
 01-17-20A STRANGE MICROCLIMATE– The microclimate, or natural setting, around weather stations can impact temperature readings. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp (nap) looks at a strange twist to a microclimate that occurred in South Dakota.WW1 01-17
 01-17-20THE AFFECT OF A CHINOOK– A chinook, the name given to the downslope wind on the eastern side of the Rockies, can cause a dramatic change in temperature in just a few minutes. In 1943, a chinook caused a wide temperature swing in a town in South Dakota – going from below zero to 45-degrees above in just two minutes.WW2 01-17
 01-17-20FREEZING OR FROST FOG?– Kansas has been experiencing some foggy conditions recently. Because of the weather conditions, it most likely was a freezing fog. WW3 01-17
 01-10-20GETTING “SOCKED IN”– When visibility or ceiling conditions are so poor that an airport is closed, passengers typically hear that the airport is “socked in” and flights have been delayed. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains how that term originated.WW1 01-10 
 01-10-20A TRUE SINGULARITY– A singularity is a weather event that happens on or near a particular date more often than would occur by chance. The January Thaw is a welcome singularity for those in the eastern U.S.WW2 01-10 
 01-10-20WINTER WIND STORM– Excessively strong winter winds can result in dangerous wind chill readings, downed tree limbs, damaged roofs and overturned semi-trucks and trailers. That’s exactly what happened one winter in southwest Kansas.WW3 01-10 
 01-03-20TEMPERATURE OF ICE – When you load some ice into your favorite beverage glass, you don’t give much thought to the temperature of that ice. It’s frozen water, so it must be around 32 degrees Fahrenheit, right? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says ice actually comes in a range of temperatures, depending on its use.                                                 WW1 01-03
 01-03-20BIG SNOW– Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp looks back at a major winter storm that dumped some serious snow on northeast Kansas.                                                 WW2 01-03
 01-03-20DEEP FREEZE– The phrase “deep freeze” has sometimes been used interchangeably for both a home appliance -- and a weather event. WW3 01-03
 12-27-19WINTER STORMKansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp looks back at a winter storm that left more than 60,000 people without electricity.WW1 12-27
 12-27-19NEW YEAR’S WEATHER– While it’s common to hear people talk about a “white Christmas”  -- the start of a new year has also brought some memorable winter weather.                                                 WW2 12-27
 12-27-19WINTER WARMTH– While there have been the usual record low temperatures set during this time of year, there have also been records set at the high end of the thermometer.                    WW3 12-27
 12-20-19A GROUND BLIZZARD– An Arctic cold front that pushed through southwestern Kansas in late 1997 produced what’s known as a ground blizzard. Because of how they form, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says these blizzards can be extremely dangerous.WW1 12-20 
 12-20-19A WHITE CHRISTMAS?– Defining what constitutes a white Christmas varies from person to person. As a result, there are a number of ways to have a white Christmas.WW2 12-20 
 12-20-19FREEZE/THAW CYCLE – Damage to roads and foundations and heaving plants out of the soil are all associated with the freeze/thaw cycle experienced in Kansas. But how does Kansas compare to other states?WW3 12-20 
 12-13-19WEATHER WARNINGS– As temperatures turn colder and winds blow stronger, how do meteorologists know when to issue storm warnings? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp takes a look behind the scenes.WW1 12-13
 12-13-19RECORD CHILLS– We’ve seen some chilly air this season, but so far it hasn’t been record-breaking. However, there have been some serious record-breaking chills.WW2 12-13
 12-13-19WINTER SOLSTICE– This year, December 21st marks what many in the northern hemisphere consider to be the start of winter: the winter solstice.WW3 12-13
 12-06-19WHITEOUT– Sometimes, a blizzard can blow so much snow, it seriously impedes visibility. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says that’s one of two atmospheric phenomena that share the same label.WW1 12-06
 12-06-19WINDS AND WARMTH– Does wind direction have any connection to the temperature of the moving air? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp takes a look.WW2 12-06
 12-06-19SNOW DAY– Most school kids love a good snow day. Learn more about a snow where many Kansas communities broke their snowfall records, and possibly their snow day records too.WW3 12-06
 11-29-19A DRY NOVEMBER– This November will go down as one of the drier Novembers on record. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says you have to go back 30 years to find the driest November.                                              WW1 11-29
 11-29-19HEATING DEGREE DAYS– Cold temperatures have arrived, and furnaces and heaters are being called into action. For tracking home energy consumption, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp suggests a little bit of arithmetic. To find the accumulated heating degree days for our Mesonet stations, visit: http://mesonet.ksu.edu/agriculture/degreedays.WW2 11-29
 11-29-19FREEZING RAIN– You might think any precipitation that occurs when the temperature is below 32°F, will fall as snow or ice...but freezing rain has its own rules.WW3 11-29
 11-22-19SNOW AND WATER– When it comes to translating snowfall to water or rainfall, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says there are a couple of factors to consider.WW1 11-22
 11-22-19THANKSGIVING STORMS– Thanksgiving has occasionally been a time of serious winter weather. Here are just a few examples.WW2 11-22
 11-22-19CARBON MONOXIDE– As winter sets in, people are turning to auxiliary heat sources. Whether it’s an old-fashioned wood stove or a modern furnace, if it involves combustion, it brings the risk of carbon monoxide.WW3 11-22
 11-15-19ALBERTA CLIPPER– Recently, Kansas welcomed a visitor from the far north. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp tells us about this unique weather phenomenon.WW1 11-15
 11-15-19TOO COLD TO SNOW?– “It’s too cold to snow!” How often have you heard that declaration? As it turns out, temperature is never the issue.WW2 11-15
 11-15-19WINTER TORNADOES– When winter is in the air, many people think tornadoes are no longer possible. But, winter tornadoes can, and do, happen.WW3 11-15
 11-08-19TEMPERATURE DROPS How far can the temperature drop in a single day? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp has a few examples.WW1 11-08
 11-08-19DUST BOWL– During the 1930s, America struggled through the Great Depression. In the Heartland, farm families also had something else to worry about.WW2 11-08
 11-08-19BLACK ICE– Even if you don’t see it, it can put you in a world of hurt. Here is a reminder about one of winter’s biggest hazards.WW3 11-08
 11-01-19WIND CHILLWith the first real blasts of winter winds behind us, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp takes this opportunity to bring up a seasonal weather forecast feature.WW1 11-01 
 11-01-19SNOW TO THE SOUTH– Winter storms usually bring snow to the northern areas of the system and rain to the south. However, there have been exceptions to that rule.WW2 11-01 
 11-01-19STORM WARNINGS– We are accustomed to getting timely storm warnings from the National Weather Service. But how did this  service begin?WW3 11-01 
 10-25-19SNOW– An old adage states, “North wind doth blow and we shall have snow.” But just how accurate is that adage in Kansas?WW1 10-25
 10-25-19TRICK OR TREAT– Before going out with your little ghosts and goblins this Halloween, it's a good idea to check the forecast for tricks or treats.WW2 10-25
 10-25-19NOVEMBER– October’s average temperature was slightly cooler than normal, but November is projected to average warmer than normal. But what is that projection based on?WW3 10-25
 10-18-19CONTINENTAL CLIMATE– Last week’s weather highlighted a feature of a continental climate, one of about five different climate types on our planet. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains.WW1 10-18
 10-18-19COLD SNAP– Some years, winter comes in fits and starts. However, there was one year when winter hit with full force, right at the outset.WW2 10-18
 10-18-19EARLY BLIZZARD– Major blizzards are somewhat rare for this time of year, but they’re not completely unheard of. Learn more about one of the big ones.WW3 10-18
 10-11-19INDIAN SUMMER– It goes by several names throughout the world, but many nations and cultures recognize that brief period of special weather that precedes the permanent onset of winter. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp has more.WW1 10-11 
 10-11-19OCTOBER TORNADOES– We’re probably a good six or seven months away from the “official” severe weather season. However, it still pays to stay alertWW2 10-11
 10-11-19LIGHTNING DETECTORS– A flash or two of lightning is often enough to clear a swimming pool or golf course, or bring a sporting event to a halt. But just how are lightning strikes measured?                  WW3 10-11
 10-04-19EARLY SNOW– Last year, Belleville, Kansas recorded 40 inches of snow. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp looks back at an event that caught that town by surprise.WW1 10-04
 10-04-19MUNICIPAL DELUGE– A little more than a year ago, east central Kansas found itself treading water in a very big rain event. WW2 10-04
 10-04-19FOG BREATH– It won’t be long before excited youngsters marvel at the sight of their own breath on cold mornings. Do you know the science behind that phenomenon?WW3 10-04
 09-27-19WHEN THE COLD SNAPS– If you’re looking forward to the first cold snap of the fall, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says it may come sooner than you think.                        WW1 09-27
 09-27-19“FAIR”– When it comes to weather forecasts, there’s a fine, fine line between “partly cloudy” and “clear” skies. WW2 09-27
 09-27-19SNOW BOARDS– You may not know that Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp is a snow board enthusiast – but we’ll let her explain.WW3 09-27
 09-20-19AUTUMNAL EQUINOX– September 23rd is the official date of a particular astronomical event. But Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says in Kansas, we get to wait three more days. WW1 09-20
 09-20-19HURRICANE SEASON– During hurricane season, we all look east, towards the Atlantic ocean, to watch the storms churn up. However, it's wise to look behind you every so often. WW2 09-20
 09-20-19THE FIRST SNOWFALL– While we’ve had some warmer than normal temperatures to start September, autumn has officially arrived...and the first snowfall might be closer than you think.WW3 09-20 
 09-13-19WIND SPEEDS– Wind speeds are tracked and reported in many different ways. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp (“nap”) tells us about a few of them.WW1 09-13
 09-13-19VERY RARE WEATHER– Has it really been 100 years since we last had a flood that big? Well, it depends on how you look at it.WW2 09-13
 09-13-19FALL COLORS– The reds, oranges and golds of autumn tree leaves are something many people look forward to every year. And, there's some science behind those colorful leaves.WW3 09-13
 09-06-19HURRICANES IN KANSAS– Hurricane Dorian has left more than a few Kansans wondering if a hurricane has ever made it this far inland. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp has the answer. WW1 09-06
 09-06-19FOG– You’ve probably had at least one morning commute when it felt like you were driving through clouds. But, did you know that there are different types of fog? WW2 09-06
 09-06-19JET STREAM– It brings a burst of air through the atmosphere, and commercial pilots love the burst of speed they can get from it. But just what is the jet stream? WW3 09-06
 08-30-19THE KEYS HURRICANE One of the worst hurricanes in U.S. history occurred in early September. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says the hurricane ravaged the Florida Keys and killed hundreds.WW1 08-30 
 08-30-19PREDICTING WINTER– A lot of folklore exists for predicting winter weather. Sometimes these predictions are right. However, science shows they are just as likely to be wrong.WW2 08-30 
 08-30-19ONCE IN A BLUE MOON– A “once in a blue moon” occurrence is something that rarely happens. But what is a blue moon?WW3 08-30 
 08-23-19KRAKATOA ERUPTIONAugust 26th marks the anniversary of one of the most powerful volcanic eruptions ever recorded. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp has the story.WW1 08-23
 08-23-19BACK-TO-SCHOOL– Back to school weather has been on the warm side. However, you might wonder, “How cold can it get in August?” The answer may be surprising.WW2 08-23
 08-23-19KANSAS EARTHQUAKES– Whether or not you’ve felt them, small earthquakes occur intermittently in Kansas. Learn about a time when people thought earthquakes were caused by…well, you can probably guess!WW3 08-23
 08-16-19DEW POINT It’s a measurement referenced in most TV weather reports, but just what is the dew point?  Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains. WW1 08-16
 08-16-19CRICKETS– Can a common insect tell you the current temperature? Actually, it’s possible, if you listen very closely.WW2 08-16 
 08-16-19CLIMATE ZONES– If you enjoy the variety of weather conditions our state has to offer, "you’re in the zone.”WW3 08-16 
 08-09-19DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES– When different areas of your town record different temperature readings, it’s probably not just minor differences between thermometers. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains.WW1 08-09 
 08-09-19A VERY HOT SUMMER– We’ve had some hot days this summer, but it doesn’t come close to one of the hottest summers recorded in Kansas.WW2 08-09 
 08-09-19HURRICANES– As the 2019 hurricane season continues, here's a look back at two of America’s most destructive storms.WW3 08-09 
 08-02-19HABOOBS– In very dry regions of the world, summer can sometimes bring an unusual blend of two very different weather events. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains.WW1 08-02
 08-02-19VAPOR PRESSURE DEFICIT– TV meteorologists often talk about relative humidity and dew point, but a different way of measuring moisture is gaining popularity.WW2 08-02
 08-02-19FALLING STARS– An annual astronomical event is just a few days away.WW3 08-02
 07-26-19WHAT IS A MONSOON?– We may know the term monsoon, but Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says we’re probably wrongfully associating it with heavy rain rather than wind patterns.WW1 07-26
 07-26-19FLASH FLOOD DANGER– Flash flooding in the mountainous west can be dangerous – even deadly. One such incident occurred in northeastern Colorado in 1976.WW2 07-26
 07-26-19STRAIGHT LINE WINDS– Straight line winds can be just as damaging as a tornado. One of the worst thunderstorms on record for Kansas occurred in 1986, causing damages in excess of 71 million dollars.WW3 07-26
 07-19-19HURRICANE SEASON It’s summer, and that means hurricane season in the Atlantic. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp tells us of the unusual origin of this year’s first big storm. WW1 07-19
 07-19-19HOTTER THAN HOT– Hot weather is an expected part of the summer, but how hot is “hot?” WW2 07-19 
 07-19-19YEAR WITHOUT A SUMMER– We’ve seen a roller coaster of summer weather, with high temperatures and record lows. However, there was one year when there were arguably only three seasons. WW3 07-19
 07-12-19DOG DAYS– We are moving into the hottest part of the summer, also known as the “dog days.” Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp looks at the history behind this phrase.WW1 07-12
 07-12-19POPUP THUNDERSTORMS– The clear blue skies have suddenly given way to a brief downpour. This is what's known as a popup thunderstorm.WW2 07-12
 07-12-19HEAVY RAINS– This summer may seem unusually wet in Kansas, but this kind of thing has happened before.WW3 07-12
 07-05-19MUGGY– We’ve all heard the weather described as “muggy,” but what does the word actually mean? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp takes a look at the word’s very old roots.WW1 07-05
 07-05-19COOL JULY– July is typically a month of hot, summer sun and sweltering heat. However, there are exceptions.WW2 07-05
 07-05-19MIST, HAZE, FOG– You see something moist hanging in the air, obscuring your view of the road ahead. What is it? Science has the answer.WW3 07-05
 06-28-19SUMMER HAIL– We occasionally see hail storms in the middle of summer, but Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp tells us about a storm from 20 years ago that battered one familiar Kansas town.WW1 06-28
 06-28-19THE AIR UP THERE– Have you ever thought about our air? I mean, really thought about it?WW2 06-28
 06-28-19SOIL MOISTURE– With all the recent rainfall, it’s not uncommon to see water standing in crop fields. Have you ever wondered why some puddles dry up faster than others?WW3 06-28
 06-21-19WETTEST MONTH– Heading into the final full week of June, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp reminds us that there’s still time to reach a meteorological milestone.WW1 06-21
 06-21-19HOT CARS– As we move from cool, spring-like temperatures, into the searing summer heat, we need to remember the dangers associated with leaving people or pets in vehicles -- even for a short time.WW2 06-21
 06-21-19RECORD RAINS– With summer thunderstorms, we sometimes see torrential rains. Learn more about one of the biggest rainfall events in Kansas history.WW3 06-21
 06-14-19HEAT BURST– You’ve probably heard of a cloudburst, a torrential downpour of rain – but how about a heat burst? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains.WW1 06-14
 06-14-19DRY LIGHTNING– Imagine a thunderstorm in which the raindrops evaporate on their way down. Actually, you don’t have to imagine it – it’s a real weather phenomenon.WW2 06-14
 06-14-19SUMMER SOLSTICE– Today may not be the hottest day of the year, but it will be our longest! WW3 06-14
 06-07-19HUMIDITY AND RAIN– Some people associate humidity with precipitation; a balmy, sticky afternoon can only lead to thunderstorms that night. But Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says, not so fast! WW1 06-07
 06-07-19EDDIES– They are the rebels, the problem children of wind currents. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp  explains.WW2 06-07 
 06-07-19JUNE TORNADOES– As we near the end of the 2019 severe weather season, we're reminded that we can still have plenty of severe weather in the month of June.WW3 06-07 
 05-31-19HEAVY HAIL STORM– We’ve often heard of, and seen images of large hail stones. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp tells us about an incident when hail was measured by the inch.WW1 05-31
 05-31-19“DEATH RIDGE”– Storm chasers have their own colorful and flamboyant terms for weather phenomena. Learn more about one of those terms.WW2 05-31
 05-31-19TOPEKA TORNADO– It was then, and still is today, one of the most-famous weather events in American history – and it was covered live on TV. WW3 05-31
 05-24-19BIG TORNADOES– Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp looks back at a series of tornadoes that wreaked havoc in southwest Kansas in 1996.WW1 05-24 
 05-24-19 DODGE CITY– What happens when you get just under two inches of rain in a little less than an hour? The citizens of a well-known town in southwest Kansas can tell you.WW2 05-24 
 05-24-19 JOHNSTOWN FLOOD– Many have heard of the largest flood disaster in U.S. history – but what they may not know is that the weather pattern that contributed to that event started right here.WW3 05-24 
 05-17-19FISH IN THE STREETS– We’ve all probably seen flash flooding that happens frighteningly fast. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp tells us of one event that had a rather unusual effect.WW1 05-17
 05-17-19HAIL OR SLEET?– When precipitation falls from the sky as ice, there are at least two possible forms it could take. WW2 05-17
 05-17-19BOW ECHO– A feature sometimes seen on the latest weather radar displays can be a harbinger of severe winds, or worse. WW3 05-17
 05-10-19STRAIGHT LINE WINDS– While spinning, twisting tornadoes are often the first things we think about during severe weather seasons, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says there are other dangers to be wary of. WW1 05-10
 05-10-19“TORNADO DAY”– While tornadoes are generally rare and sporadic in their appearances, there are days when they take over the weather map.WW2 05-10 
 05-10-19WIDE TORNADOES– Just how big and wide can a tornado get? You’d be surprised!WW3 05-10 
 05-03-19UNDER PRESSURE– Atmospheric pressure, also called barometric pressure, is measured by various types of barometers. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says how the pressure is reported – either as station pressure or sea level pressure – can be confusing.WW1 05-03
 05-03-19THE UV INDEX– As the days get longer and the weather gets warmer, we typically spend more time outdoors. As a result, we should be paying attention to the UV Index to avoid overexposure to the sun’s ultraviolet radiation.WW2 05-03
 05-03-19MORNING GLORIES– A relatively uncommon cloud form that results from disturbances related to gravitational waves in a stable boundary can make a glorious start to the morning.  WW3 05-03
 04-26-19“SILENT” LIGHTNING– If you’ve ever seen lightning flashing off in the distance, you’ve probably also noticed the lack of accompanying thunder. But what's the science behind this phenomena?WW1 04-26 
 04-26-19MAY BRIDGE– May marks the transitional month that ends spring – the bridge between winter and summer. During this transition, temperature extremes can occur.WW2 04-26 
 04-26-19GREENSBURGMay 4th marks the 12th anniversary of one of the biggest tornadoes in history – a monster that literally changed the face of an entire town.WW3 04-26 
 04-19-19FROSTY NIGHTSWhen you hear the phrase, “cloud cover,” are you reminded of the covers on your bed? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says it’s a fitting metaphor.WW1 04-19
 04-19-19A LATE FREEZE– The further we get into spring, the more concern there seems to be over a late freeze. Do the record books confirm that concern?   WW2 04-19
 04-19-19PHENOLOGY– You’ve heard of meteorology and climatology – but what about phenology? It's actually a field of study devoted to changes.WW3 04-19
 04-12-19CATS AND DOGS– Can it really “rain cats and dogs?” Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp investigates.WW1 04-12
 04-12-19FLOODINGWe know about general flooding and flash flooding, but what other factors cause flooding? WW2 04-12
 04-12-19VIRGA– What happens when rain falls out of the sky, but never touches the ground? It results in an interesting weather phenomenon.WW3 04-12
 04-05-19EXTREME ANNIVERSARYThis may seem late in the year for snowfall, but Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp (nap) tells us about two very big winter storms from years past.WW1 04-05  
 04-05-19DUST BOWL– The next time you drive by a farm and notice the long lines of trees along a fence line or near the house, remember that those trees have a big job to do. WW2 04-05 
 04-05-19BIG FLOOD– Incidents of extreme flooding have been in the news lately. This may bring back memories of another such event in Kansas.WW3 04-05 
 03-29-19APRIL FOOL’S DAYApril 1st is April Fool’s Day – when pranksters like to play tricks. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says the weather can also play tricks on us.WW1 03-29
 03-29-19SEVERE WEATHER SEASON– As we move into April, we move into severe weather season. This is the story of one particularly bad day.WW2 03-29
 03-29-19APRIL SHOWERS, MAY FLOWERS– One of the most well-known sayings about weather is particularly true in Kansas. Mary Knapp explains.WW3 03-29
 03-22-19COLD SNAPLast week there was a lot of talk about the “bomb cyclone” that ravaged much of the Midwest.  Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp tells us about one aspect of that event.WW1 03-22
 03-22-19VOLUNTEERS WANTED– There’s a way you can contribute to your local weather reports – and you don’t even need a degree in meteorology! To volunteer, visit: www.cocorahs.org.WW2 03-22
 03-22-19WINTER IN SPRING– The calendar may say that spring is here, but Mother Nature doesn’t always follow our calendars.WW3 03-22
 03-15-19LONGER AND STRONGERIn Kansas, spring “severe weather season” typically starts about now. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says there might be a reason for this.WW1 03-15
 03-15-19LATE WINTER– Even if the temperatures outside are warmer, that doesn't mean we're done with winter just yet.WW2 03-15
 03-15-19FOLK TALE– When you get right down to it, weather forecasting is a means of predicting the future. Mary Knapp offers this “folk prediction” that you might want to try.WW3 03-15
 03-08-19WINDY MARCHIn Kansas, March is famous for its windy weather. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp tells us about one year when high winds really left their mark.WW1 03-08 
 03-08-19DEEP FREEZE– Winter weather has persisted in Kansas this year. As we look forward to more spring-like conditions, we might want to remember the winter of 1992–93. WW2 03-08 
 03-08-19WIND ADVISORIES– If you enjoy bicycling, hiking, or other outdoor activities, there’s one part of the weather forecast to really take note of.WW3 03-08 
 03-01-19WINDThe wind features prominently in the legend and lore of Kansas. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp considers what the weather records say about this.WW1 03-01
 03-01-19WIND SPEED– When measuring wind speed, even minor differences in altitude can make a difference.WW2 03-01
 03-01-19LAST FREEZE– How late can the last spring freeze occur? There are actually a lot of possibilities.WW3 03-01
 02-22-19TWILIGHT TIMEAs we move towards spring, we gain a bit more daylight, day by day. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp delves into the various terms used to describe the setting of the sun.WW1 02-22
 02-22-19THE WIND AND YOUR MIND– Strong winds have their advantages and disadvantages. In some circumstances, they can actually wreak psychological havoc.WW2 02-22
 02-22-19LIONS AND LAMBS– We’ve all heard the familiar saying about the month of March – but is there any science behind the adage?WW3 02-22
 02-15-19“THUNDER SNOW”– A storm event is usually characterized by its most destructive element. So what happens when you have snow and thunder in the same event? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains.WW1 02-15 
 02-15-19FEBRUARY IS STILL WINTER– Even though we may have a few warm days in February, there was one year when some of the coldest weather of the year occurred that month.WW2 02-15 
 02-15-19HIGHS AND LOWS– Because February sits right on the edge of winter, temperatures and precipitation can vary greatly from year to year.WW3 02-15 
 02-08-19IT’S STILL WINTERYoung lovers may have thoughts of spring, but Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says Old Man Winter isn’t done with us just yet.WW1 02-08
 02-08-19VALENTINE’S DAY WEATHER– What kind of weather is most associated with Valentine’s Day? History shows it could be just about anything.WW2 02-08
 02-08-19ATMOSPHERIC RIVER– “Atmospheric river” is a term that has been mentioned in the weather news lately. But what does it mean?WW3 02-08
 02-01-19HYPOTHERMIAA sudden, drastic drop in your core body temperature is dangerous, sometimes even fatal.  Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp has more.WW1 02-01
 02-01-19ICE DAY– In certain parts of Europe, schools don’t close just for heavy snowfall. They're actually watching out for something else.WW2 02-01
 02-01-19SUBLIMATION– Is it possible for ice to melt away, even if the temperature never climbs above freezing? The answer might surprise you. WW3 02-01
 01-25-19SNOWY JANUARYIf you feel like snow has finally returned to winter, you’re probably not alone. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains why this month has seemed so cold and white.WW1 01-25
 01-25-19HIGHS AND LOWS– Sometimes, temperature changes can be particularly drastic and sudden -- and there are several examples of wide temperature swings.WW2 01-25
 01-25-19GROUNDHOG DAY– Groundhog Day is billed as the day we find out how much more winter we’re likely to have to endure. However, the prediction may not be reliable.WW3 01-25
 01-18-19HIGHS AND LOWS– Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says the date of January 21st is associated with several weather records.WW1 01-18 
 01-18-19SOME BIG SWINGS– Massive storm systems and cold air masses can sometimes result in dizzying drops in temperature...and the numbers can be surprising.WW2 01-18 
 01-18-19WINTER MOISTURE– When it comes to winter moisture, “snow” and “sleet” barely scratch the list of different forms. So, here's the other forms to keep an eye on.WW3 01-18 
 01-11-19 BLIZZARDS FROM THE PASTKansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp looks back at a couple of deadly blizzards from the late 19th century.WW1 01-11
 01-11-19 SINGULARITY– Once is happenstance; twice is coincidence. And if it frequently happens, year after year, on or about the same day on the calendar? As you might imagine, there’s a word for that, too.WW2 01-11
 01-11-19 POLAR VORTEX Many meteorologists have been referring to the “polar vortex,” but what is it? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains.WW3 01-11
 01-04-19 THE TEMPERATURE OF ICE– We typically think of the temperature of ice as 32-degrees Fahrenheit. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says that’s just one form of ice.WW1 01-04
 01-04-19 SAFETY THICKNESS OF ICE– Unless you live in a region that normally experiences deep winter conditions, you should stay off the ice in the winter.WW2 01-04
 01-04-19 THE FREEZE/THAW CYCLES– A freeze/thaw cycle is the number of times the temperature moves from above freezing to below freezing. But how does that cycle compare between Kansas and two other states?WW3 01-04
 12-28-18END-OF-THE-YEAR WEATHER– On average, there is a 25 percent chance of seeing snow and ice on New Year’s Eve in Kansas. K-State climatologist Mary Knapp recalls a memorable snow storm at the end of 1978 and the beginning of 1979.WW1 12-28
 12-28-18TEMPERATURE IMPACTS FOG– We often think of fog as being a heavy, soupy mist. However, there is also a freezing fog and a frost fog. However, it’s unlikely to see a frost fog in Kansas.WW2 12-28
 12-28-18SLEET, SNOW GRAINS, GRAUPEL– Most people are familiar with snow and freezing rain. However, they may not be as familiar with sleet, snow grains and graupel.WW3 12-28
 12-21-18STORMY CHRISTMAS– One of the more unusual weather events occurred two years ago when snowfall was preceded by something rarely seen in December. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp  has more.WW1 12-21
 12-21-18REVOLUTIONARY WEATHER– Of all the important figures of the American Revolution, one that rarely gets credit is the weather.WW2 12-21
 12-21-18WATER– We simply would not have life on our planet without water. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explores one of water’s more interesting characteristics.WW3 12-21
 12-14-18TOO COLD TO SNOW?The next time you hear someone remark that “it’s too cold to snow” tell them you know what’s really happening.WW1 12-14
 12-14-18WINTER SOLSTICE– December 21st marks a beginning – and an ending. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains.WW2 12-14
 12-14-18COLD BLAST– Almost 40 years ago this week, a severe cold front dropped temperatures across Kansas, setting new records in several locations.WW3 12-14
 12-07-18WIND CHILLFew things get colder than the air temperature. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says there's a common method of determining the effect of wind and cold on warm-blooded animals.WW1 12-07 
 12-07-18ICE STORMS– Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp looks back at one of the worst ice storms in Kansas history.WW2 12-07 
 12-07-18WINTER STORM– The year 1987 is remembered for a major winter storm that ravaged more than three states. WW3 12-07
 11-30-18FREEZING RAIN– A more unusual type of winter precipitation, freezing rain rarely looks as dangerous as it really is. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains.WW1 11-30
 11-30-18 FOUR CORNERS STORMS– A particular type of storm system is known for generating lots of snow over southwest Kansas. Learn more about the Four Corners storm.WW2 11-30
 11-30-18 HOARFROST– There's one particular type of winter precipitation that makes trees and shrubs look like they have white hair. WW3 11-30
 11-23-18LIQUID EQUIVALENTHow much water would you get if you melted down an inch of snow? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says there are several factors to consider. WW1 11-23
 11-23-18BLACK ICE– It’s slippery, treacherous, and you usually don’t see it until it’s too late. What is it?WW2 11-23 
 11-23-18HEATING DEGREE DAYSThere is a climate measurement that can be used to get a rough estimate of heating fuel demands. You can learn more by visiting: http://mesonet.ksu.edu/agriculture/degreedays.WW3 11-23 
 11-16-18BLIZZARD Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp delves into the use and origins of a common winter word—one you might associate with a popular ice cream treat.WW1 11-16
 11-16-18WINTER TORNADOES– You may not think tornadoes are possible in winter, but you might be wrong!WW2 11-16
 11-16-18WINTER OF ‘92Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp looks back at one of the biggest winter storms in Kansas history.WW3 11-16
 11-09-18TWO RECORDS, ONE DAY– How far can temperatures drop in a single day? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp tells us about one of the most dramatic cold waves on record in the central United States.WW1 11-09
 11-09-18HYDROMETEORKansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp introduces us to a weather term that covers a lot of bases.WW2 11-09
 11-09-18WINTER ROAD READINESS – Before you do any extensive driving this winter, you should make iversity climatologist Mary Knapp suggests you make a few preparations.WW3 11-09
 11-02-18WINTER WEATHER READINESS– Winter is approaching, and Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says it’s best to start preparing for it sooner, rather than later.WW1 11-02
 11-02-18METEOROLOGY– The origins of weather forecasting are rooted closer to the stars above, rather than the earth beneath our feet. WW2 11-02
 11-02-18RAINFALL REPORTS– It’s a simple question, frequently asked: “How much rain did we get last night?” Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says there’s an intricate network in place to give us the answer.WW3 11-02
 10-26-18WIND DIRECTION– Does wind direction have a direct influence on air temperature? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says that’s not always the case.WW1 10-26 
 10-26-18TRICKS AND TREATS– If you’re sending out little monsters and witches to collect candy Halloween night, it might be a good idea to bring a sweater along.WW2 10-26
 10-26-18“FALLING BACK”– Are you ready to change all your clocks and other devices back to standard time? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp looks into the history of this practice.WW3 10-26
 10-19-18CARBON MONOXIDEWhile present throughout the entire year, a deadly gas tends to build up more easily during winter. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains.WW1 10-19
 10-19-18BLIZZARD OF ‘97– One of the most ferocious winter storms in Kansas history occurred in October. WW2 10-19
 10-19-18HURRICANE MITCH– As hurricanes go, this 1998 storm is responsible for at least 11,000 deaths. WW3 10-19
 10-12-18HURRICANE HAZELOne of the deadliest hurricanes of the 20th century left a good portion of New England in ruins. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp (“nap”) looks back at Hurricane Hazel.WW1 10-12
 10-12-18SNOW BOARDS– Many meteorologists use snow boards – but not the ones you might be thinking of.   WW2 10-12
 10-12-18SEICHEWe’ve heard many references to a tidal surge in conjunction with hurricanes. However, a similar phenomenon can occur on inland lakes.WW3 10-12
 10-05-18DEVASTATING FIRES– The deadliest single wildfire in United States history is also one of the least known, largely because it was overshadowed by another fire. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp has the story.WW1 10-05
 10-05-18FALL COLOR– The reds and golds and oranges of fall tree leaves are the result of a complex formula. Learn how weather impacts the final result.WW2 10-05
 10-05-18MINNESOTA FIRES– October may seem a bit late for wildfire activity, but that's when a massive wildfire occurred in the northern United States.WW3 10-05
 09-28-18FROST– As mornings become cooler and cooler, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp  says morning frost usually happens when the temperature reaches 32 degrees Farenheit, the freezing point of water. WW1 09-28
 09-28-18HARD FREEZE– A listener recently asked, “What is a ‘hard freeze?’” Turns out the answer is a bit complicated.                                                WW2 09-28 
 09-28-18INDIAN SUMMER– Pleasantly warm days, followed by pleasantly cool evenings; traditionally, those periods are referred to as “Indian Summer.” However, it’s a weather pattern with many names.     WW3 09-28 
 09-21-18SATELLITES– Weather satellites have been assisting meteorologists for decades. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp tells us about some of the newest observers high above our heads.WW1 09-21
 09-21-18MICROBURSTSDamage from severe winds doesn’t always come in the form of tornadoes. It can also be the result of microbursts.WW2 09-21
 09-21-18FROSTY BREATH– Whether you’re age 5 or 85, there’s something fun about seeing your own breath on a frosty morning. But what's the science behind this bit of magic?WW3 09-21
 09-14-18FAIR SKIES– “Fair” is word frequently used in weather forecasts, but what exactly does it mean? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains.                                  WW1 09-14
 09-14-18DID IT RAIN?– When we wake up to moisture on the ground in the early morning, it might be dew, rather than rain. WW2 09-14
 09-14-18EARLY SNOW– If today seems way too early for snow, a quick check of the history books might change your mind.WW3 09-14
 09-07-18HURRICANES– Have full, intact hurricanes ever made it up into Kansas? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp has the answer.WW1 09-07
 09-07-18FLOODING– Recent floods in certain parts of Kansas have been devastating. However, one of the worst flash floods occurred some 40 years ago.WW2 09-07
 09-07-18EARTHQUAKE WEATHER–  We know better in the 21st century, but there was a time when earthquakes were linked to weather patterns.WW3 09-07
 08-31-18RECORD HAILWorld records have always been fascinating – the tallest, the biggest, the heaviest. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp looks at one meteorological record Kansas once owned.WW1 08-31
 08-31-18RED MOON – Last month, the moon caught the attention of many sky gazers, notably for its color.  Learn about the science behind the color.WW2 08-31
 08-31-18GALVESTON– The United States has been hit by many large hurricanes during the past one hundred years or so, but one of the biggest is still one of the oldest.WW3 08-31
 08-24-18COLD AUGUST DAYS– August is typically associated with warm, if not hot, temperatures. However, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says that’s not always the case.WW1 08-24
 08-24-18THAT’S REALLY WET!– Kansas has seen its share of wet weather recently, but the records show it can be a lot wetter.WW2 08-24
 08-24-18DAMAGE IN THE KEYS– One of the worst hurricanes to ever hit the United States was a category 5 when it slammed into the Florida Keys in early September.WW3 08-24
 08-17-18THE END OF SUMMER?On what day does summer really end? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says, you have some choices.WW1 08-17
 08-17-18WEATHER MAPS– The process used to forecast weather begins with how weather patterns are viewed. However, modern meteorology began with one simple tool.WW2 08-17
 08-17-18FOG, MIST, HAZE– When you’re driving to work early in the morning, and you can’t see more than a few feet in front of your car, it could be one of three things.WW3 08-17
 08-10-18HOTTER DAYS– The month of August began with tremendous heat across much of the state, but Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says the record books document a much hotter August.WW1 08-10
 08-10-18WIND SPEED– There’s more than one way to measure and report wind speed.WW2 08-10
 08-10-18HOT SUMMER NIGHTS– While night time temperatures are generally cooler, there have been a few years when the setting of the sun offered no relief.WW3 08-10
 08-03-18A FAMILIAR AROMA– The title song from the Broadway musical “Oklahoma!” features the line, “And the wavin' wheat can sure smell sweet, when the wind comes right behind the rain.” Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp delves into the science behind the scent.                  WW1 08-03
 08-03-18SUMMER SNOW?– While there has been some weather data recording snowfall in July and August, it helps to dig a little deeper for the truth.WW2 08-03
 08-03-18SUMMER HAIL– While most severe weather happens in the spring, summer hail storms have been known to be particularly destructive.WW3 08-03
 07-27-18DESTRUCTIVE WIND FEATURESMost wind damage from severe storms is caused by straight line winds, not tornadoes. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains. WW1 07-27
 07-27-18NON-TORNADIC THUNDERSTORM– August 1st marks the anniversary of the one of the worst non-tornadic thunderstorms on record for Kansas. WW2 07-27 
 07-27-18A THUNDERSTORM AND DUST MIX – Haboobs are typical of very dry regions, such as the Sahara. However, these storms can also occur in the southwestern U.S.WW3 07-27 
 07-20-18STAY HYDRATED– If you’re going to be outside in the heat, plan ahead by drinking ahead. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp discusses why that’s important.WW1 07-20
 07-20-18HEAT-RELATED ILLNESSES– With temperatures soaring into the triple digits, it’s important to watch out for heat-related illnesses. And, here's what to look for.WW2 07-20
 07-20-18HURRICANE HUNTERS– While these aviators spend their “off-season” investigating winter storms, this is the time of year hurricane hunters earn their name.WW3 07-20
 07-13-18POPUP THUNDERSTORMS– During the hottest summer days, late afternoon or evening thunderstorms can pop up out of nowhere. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains the science behind these storms.WW1 07-13
 07-13-18HOTTEST DAYS OF KANSAS– To experience the hottest days ever recorded in Kansas, you’d have to push your thermometer well into the triple digits. WW2 07-13
 07-13-18A BIG FLOOD– Twenty-five years ago, one Kansas county experienced a flash flood event that is still being talked about today. WW3 07-13
 07-06-18COLD JULY?– The summer heat has arrived! While you’re focused on the upper end of the thermometer, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp reminds us that for one extreme, you can usually find another.WW1 06-07 
 07-06-18FIRESTARTER– We all know that lightning can be dangerous. In addition to the risk of injury or death to individuals, lightning can sometimes lead to catastrophic loss of property.                                                 WW2 06-07
 07-06-18DOG DAYS– We’re approaching the hottest part of the summer, known as the “dog days.” But what's the story behind this rather odd phrase?                                                 WW3 06-07
 06-29-18RIDGELocal TV meteorologists sometimes talk about a “ridge” on their maps, and in their forecasts. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains just what that means.WW1 06-29
 06-29-18HEAT BURST– Have you ever heard of a “heat burst?” K-State climatologist Mary Knapp explains when and where you’re most likely to encounter a heat burst.WW2 06-29
 06-29-18MIRAGE– In old movies, people stranded in the desert might see a mirage off in the distance. However, the scientific explanation is easier to see.                                                 WW3 06-29
 06-22-18DEW POINT– One basic measure of humidity is the dew point. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains the science behind it.WW1 06-22
 06-22-18HEAT WAVE– Warm weather has arrived, but is it a heat wave? The answer probably depends on where you live.                                                 WW2 06-22
 06-22-18MUGGYFor his high school newspaper, the late John Lennon once wrote a brief weather forecast: “Today will be muggy, followed by tuggy, wuggy and thuggy.” Those last three words aren’t actual weather conditions, but we know a lot about muggy.                                                 WW3 06-22
 06-15-18HEAT LIGHTNINGWhen it happens, the overhead skies are usually clear, and you probably don’t hear thunder. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains what it is.WW1 06-15
 06-15-18SUMMER SOLSTICE– June 21st marks an important annual astronomical and meteorological event. WW2 06-15
 06-15-18RAINIEST MONTH– You might think that the wettest month for Kansas would be April or May, at the height of severe weather season. However, you’d be wrong.WW3 06-15 
 06-08-18A CAPPED INVERSION– It looks like a storm might develop, but then nothing happens. Why does occur? According to K-State climatologist Mary Knapp (nap) it might be the result of a capped inversion.WW1 06-08
 06-08-18TWO COLD JUNE DAYS– We think of June as being one of our warmer months. However, that’s not always the case. There was a very cold June day in California in 1907 and one in Kansas in 1998.WW2 06-08
 06-08-18A TORNADO OUTBREAK– June 15, 1992 is in the history books as the second largest two-day tornado outbreak in U.S. history – and it began in Kansas. WW3 06-08
 06-01-18FLASH FLOODINGWhen heavy rains drench an area in just a few hours, Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp says it’s important to be aware of this weather hazard.       WW1 06-01
 06-01-18GROUND FOG– Morning motorists sometimes experience the effect of driving through clouds. But, just what exactly is this phenomenon?                             WW2 06-01
 06-01-18HEAT INDEX– High temperatures and high humidity can combine to cause illness, or even death. But, do you know how the heat index is calculated?WW3 06-01
 05-25-18WIND SPEEDHow strong and fast is the wind today? Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp  says we owe a debt of gratitude to a 19th century British naval officer who first decided that wind speed measurements were important.WW1 05-25
 05-25-18BALL LIGHTNING– A bright light, a crackle, perhaps a lingering odor of sulfur. Learn more about this very rare, almost mythical atmospheric phenomenon.WW2 05-25
 05-25-18DANGERS OF LIGHTNING– As summer thunderstorms develop, it’s important to remember one of the major hazards of thunderstorms.                                                 WW3 05-25
 05-18-18FLASH FLOOD– We’ve all seen video of cars and people stuck in the waters of a flash flood. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp has the story about one flash flood that turned the streets into a river, fish included!WW1 05-18
 05-18-18SUNDOGS– You may be familiar with sun spots and solar flares, but there's a much rarer phenomenon to watch for.WW2 05-18
 05-18-18SOIL MOISTURE– Much of Kansas has been stuck in a drought, leaving parched soil and stressed vegetation. However, there has been a question about soil moisture.WW3 05-18
 05-11-18ROLL CLOUDSKansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp tells us about a rare type of cloud that you just might spot during severe weather season.WW1 05-11 
 05-11-18VIRGAIs it possible to have rain falling from the sky, with little or none of it even hitting the ground? While it may be rare, it can happen.WW2 05-11
 05-11-18VOLCANOESWith all the attention on Hawaii recently, many are wondering what effect volcanic eruptions can have on weather.WW3 05-11
 05-04-18BOLT FROM THE BLUE– If you’ve never seen a bolt of lightning come out of a clear blue sky, it may just be a matter of time. Kansas State University climatologist Mary Knapp explains.WW1 05-04
 05-04-18NOT JUST TORNADOES– Most of us associate severe weather with the occurrence of tornadoes – it’s the “worst case scenario” we immediately gravitate to. However, other occurrences can be just as bad...maybe worse.WW2 05-04
 05-04-18HAIL OR SLEET?– When ice particles fall from the sky, is it hail or sleet? Believe it or not, there actually are differences between the two.WW3 05-04
 04-27-18WESTERN KANSAS BLIZZARD– Western Kansas was hit by a major blizzard in late April last year. According to K-State climatologist Mary Knapp, snowfall amounts of one to two feet were common – and cattle loss was an estimated 100,000 head.WW1 04-27
 04-27-18TORNADO ACTIVITY IS DOWN– Tornado activity in Kansas is off to a slow start this spring. However, tornado activity can still pick up – possibly as early as next month.WW2 04-27
 04-27-18THE GREENSBURG TORNADO– May 4th marks the 11th anniversary of the devastating Greensburg Tornado. This Level 5 tornado literally erased over 90% of the town.WW3 04-27
 04-20-18APRIL HIGH TEMPERATURES– April can see a range of temperatures – from bitterly cold to extremely warm. K-State climatologist Mary Knapp looks at some of the warmest temperatures recorded in Kansas in April.WW1 04-20
 04-20-18UNUSUAL STORM WARNING– We’re used to a variety of weather warnings being issued in Kansas. However, there was a rather unusual warning issued in April of 1994.WW2 04-20
 04-20-18TWILIGHT AND CIVIL TWILIGHT– Because it occurs gradually this time of year, the additional sunlight gained is hardly noticeable. In addition to giving sunrise and sunset times, other terms might be included in local weather reports.WW3 04-20
 04-13-18U.S. DROUGHT MONITOR– A special measuring tool that integrates stream flow, precipitation, and vegetative health is getting a lot of use these days. K-State climatologist Mary Knapp explains.WW1 04-13
 04-13-18HIGH WIND DAMAGE– While most associate high wind damage with rotating phenomena such as tornadoes and hurricanes, straight-line winds can wreak just as much havoc.WW2 04-13
 04-13-18FREEZING CONDITIONS– The average date of the last freeze varies across the state. For example, in Yates Center, the average date is April 8th while in Atwood it's May 8th. As for this year, conditions appear optimal for a late freeze.WW3 04-13
 04-06-18MESONET– In addition to the big weather stations and Doppler radar systems you occasionally see, Kansas has a smaller network of weather recording stations that deliver helpful data. K-State climatologist Mary Knapp explains.WW1 04-06  
 04-06-18APRIL FOOL’S SNOWFALL– If someone told you it was snowing outside on April 1st, you might think it was an April Fool’s joke. But there have been some astounding amounts of snowfall recorded on that date.WW2 04-06 
 04-06-18APRIL SHOWERS– April is not only a time for rain “showers” – some heavy amounts of rain have been recorded. this is a look back at one such day. WW3 04-06



500-YEAR EVENTS?Just after the landfall of Hurricane Harvey, journalists and meteorologists were using terms like “500-year storm” or “100-year flood.” K-State climatologist Mary Knapp (“nap”) shares some insight into these terms.